Introduction of Earthen Dam
An earthen dam is a dam made of earth, usually with a stone or concrete core. The core may be absent in small dams. Earthen dams can be built differently from other types of dams. The height of an earthen dam is generally much lower than that of a concrete dam, but they can store just as much water. Earthen dams are usually built by impounding water behind the dam to raise the water level. This is done by excavating a reservoir to create a large body of water. The water level is then raised by releasing water from the reservoir into the river upstream of the dam.
Components of Earthen Dam
- Components of an earthen dam include the following:
-The embankment or body of the dam, which is typically made from dirt, rocks, and other earth materials.
-The foundation, or bottom, of the dam, which must be made of solid material that will not erode or wash away.
-The spillway, which is a channel that allows excess water to flow away from the dam and prevents the dam from overflowing.
-The outlet works, which is a structure that controls the release of water from the dam.
Materials Used in Earthen Dam
- There are many materials that can be used in the construction of an earthen dam, but the most common are earth, sand, clay, and rock
- Depending on the type of dam and the specific site conditions, other materials may also be used, such as concrete, asphalt, or geosynthetic materials.
Types of Earthen Dam
- There are two main types of earthen dams: embankment dams and gravity dams.
Embankment dams are built by placing large amounts of material, such as earth, rock, and gravel, on top of a graded foundation
- The weight of the embankment creates a hydraulic pressure that helps to hold back water.
Gravity dams are built by placing massive blocks of concrete or stone in a downstream-facing V-shape
- The weight of the dam helps to resist the force of the water pushing against it.
Conditions of Stability of Earthen Dam
- The conditions which are necessary for the stability of an earthen dam are :
- The dam should be designed and constructed on the basis of sound engineering principles.
- The foundation of the dam should be firm and stable.
- The dam should be of proper height and length.
- The slopes of the dam should be uniform and regular.
- The materials used for the construction of the dam should be of good quality.
- The dam should be properly drained.
- The dam should be regularly inspected and maintained.
Earthen dams are a type of dam that is made of materials such as sand, gravel, and earth. This type of dam is typically used to store water for irrigation, flood control, or drinking water supplies. Earthen dams are usually built on top of a bedrock foundation, which helps to support the weight of the dam and prevents the dam from leaking. In some cases, an earthen dam may also be used to create a reservoir for hydroelectric power generation.
Frequently Asked Questions
What are some of the benefits of using an earthen dam?
Some of the benefits of using an earthen dam include the following:
-Earthen dams are relatively inexpensive to build.
-Earthen dams can be built quickly.
-Earthen dams are typically very sturdy and can last for many years with proper maintenance.
-Earthen dams can provide both irrigation water and drinking water for communities.
-Earthen dams can also be used to generate hydroelectric power.
What type of dam is an earthen dam?
An earthen dam is a dam that is made of materials such as sand, gravel, and earth. This type of dam is typically used to store water for irrigation, flood control, or drinking water supplies.
What are earthen dams used for?
Earthen dams are used for a variety of purposes, including irrigation, flood control, drinking water supplies, and hydroelectric power generation.