What Is the Strongest Foundation for a House? | Purpose of Building Foundation | Requirements of Good Foundation of Building | Types of House Foundations

What Is the Strongest Foundation for a House

Table of Contents

Introduction of Foundation for House

The foundation is laid in direct contact with the ground, which transmits the load coming from the structure to the ground.

Foundation is an important part of any building structure. On which the structure of the building rests. The foundation provides the base for the structure of the building.

The main points of this article are as follows,

What Is the Foundation in the Building?

The foundation is the lower part of the building structure made to transfer the load on the ground. The load of the structure of the building is transferred to the earth due to gravity by the foundation. Foundations are mainly classified into two parts as per requirement.

The main purpose of the foundation is to provide stability to the building. The foundation is designed to transfer the weight of the building structure over a large area.

Also Read: Difference Between Dead Load Vs Live Load | Environmental Load

Purpose of Building Foundation

  1. Foundations provide stability to the ground of the building structure.
  2. The purpose of the foundation is to support the stability of the building against various external factors. These factors include earthquakes, floods, frost heaves, tornadoes, and wind.
  3. The foundation transfers the weight of the structure over a large area to prevent unequal settlement of the land.
  4. The foundation provides a base for the construction of the building.
  5. A deep foundation is used to increase the stability of the structure of the building and prevent overloading.
  6. The foundation is designed to prevent the lateral movement of the supported structure against external factors.

Requirements of Good Foundation of Building

The following are some basic requirements of the foundation for the design and good performance.

1. Stability of the Foundation

The structure of the foundation should be such that it can withstand combined dead loads, live loads, earthquakes, and wind loads without any damage like structural damage, disintegration, and deformation, etc. of any building. And it should be designed to safely transfer this structure and external load to the ground.

Also Read: Density Of Cement, Sand, And Aggregate | What Is Density of Building Material | Density of RCC

2. Sufficient Depth of the Foundation.

The foundation should take sufficient depth in the ground depending on the weight of the structure of the building so that the structure of the building is not affected by movement in different conditions of the ground. This soil movement can be caused by swelling, shrinking, freezing, etc.

3. Differential Settlement of Foundation

The foundation must be rigid to minimize differential settlement of the soil. But in some cases, when the foundation is not distributed to the superimposed load, the base must be rigid in such a situation.

4. Location of the Foundation.

The location of the foundation is also important so that its performance is not affected by unexpected effects such as earthquakes and overloading. The location of the foundation is also important so that its performance is not affected by unexpected effects such as earthquakes and overloading.

5. Overturning and Sliding of Foundation

The foundation should be designed to withstand ultimate loading, such as overturning and sliding.

The foundation should be able to resist various chemicals present in the soil. Foundation can be made using sulfate-resisting cement to resist sulfate attack. Adequate care is taken by vibration and curing during concreting in this condition.

Why Different Types of Foundations Are Used in Construction?

The bearing capacity of the land depends on the site location of the building. Different sites have different bearing capacities of the soil. Engineers design different types of foundations according to the bearing capacity of the soil and the structure of the building.

It is not advisable to build the same type of foundation as there is soil variation at each site. The design of the foundation is determined on the basis of the soil profile, size, and structure load.

If the foundation for a building is built without testing the ground conditions at the site, the foundation is likely to fail.

Types of House Foundations

  • Shallow Foundation
  • Deep Foundation

1. Shallow Foundation

Shallow Foundation

A shallow foundation is a type of foundation for a building. In this type of foundation, the depth of the foundation is less than the width of the foundation. A shallow foundation is used economically and popularly for lightweight buildings.

Shallow foundations are commonly used in houses for depths of 3.5 to 4m.

This type of foundation is provided for medium-height buildings. These types of foundations are built on dry soil.

Types of Shallow Foundation

The different types of shallow foundations are as follows,

  • Wall Footing
  • Isolated Footing
  • Combined Footing
  • Inverted Arch Footing
  • Cantilever Footing or Strap Footing
  • Grillage Footings
  • Raft or Mat Foundation
1.1 Wall Footings

This type of foundation can be done in two ways, which are used in the foundation of a lightweight structure.

Its two types are simple wall footing and stepped wall footing. Simple wall footing has a concrete base at the bottom. There are no steps in it.

Stepping wall footing is used for the foundations of heavy-load structures. Stepping wall footing increases the area of the wall to transfer the load over a large area of soil.

Simple wall footing is used as a foundation for the construction of compound walls and lightweight structures, while stepping wall footing is used as a foundation for load-bearing structures.

1.2 Isolated Footing

Isolated footing is used as the most common type of foundation for building construction. This foundation is usually made for a single column.

This type of foundation is calculated based on the load of the building and the bearing capacity of the soil. The isolated footing is commonly used as the footing for five stories buildings.

This type of foundation can be classified as an economic type foundation.

1.3 Combined Footing

Sometimes the footings of the columns are located very close to each other. Or in some cases, the combined footing should be formed in the footing where the footings of the column overlap each other.

There are two types of combined footing. Rectangular combined footing, trapezoidal combined footing.

A rectangular combined footing is used when loads on two columns are transferred equally. Trapezoidal composite footing is used when unequal load transfer occurs on two adjacent columns.

1.4 Inverted Arch Footing

This type of foundation was used in high-rise buildings in the old days.

This type of foundation was used for the construction of bridges, tanks, underground sewers, and reservoirs.

1.5 Cantilever Footings or Strap Footing

Cantilever footing is also called strap footing. This type of footing is used when the column is close to the plot of the building.

It is not possible to allow the footing of any column to extend from the boundary of the plot to another plot. Cantilever footing is used at this location.

This type of footing is used to coordinate and support the load on the boundary column. This helps to connect the adjacent columns to each other through the footing.

1.6 Grillage Foundation

This type of foundation consists of steel in one, two, or more layers. Which is designed to transfer load over an extended area called a grillage foundation.

Grillage foundation is done from depth 1 to 1.5 m. In addition to the grillage foundation, it can stabilize and shift the heavy load of the structure of the building over large areas.

1.7 Raft or Mat Foundation

A Raft foundation is a type of shallow foundation. This type of foundation structure covers the entire bottom area of ​​the building structure on the subsoil.

Raft foundations are formed mainly where the bearing capacity of the soil is low.

2. Deep Foundation

Deep Foundation

A foundation that is deeper than the width of the foundation of a building is usually called a deep foundation. This type of foundation is built very deep under the ground surface.

The deep foundation is typically formed 3 m below ground level.

Type of Deep Foundation

The Deep Foundation is given its types as follows,

1. Pile Foundation

The pile foundation resists the loads coming from the structure of the building through friction and, finally, through the bearing.

The use of pile foundations prevents differential settlement in foundations caused by soil movement. Pile foundations are used in places where the soil conditions are not capable of carrying heavy loads.

2. Well Foundation

Well, the foundation is a type of deep foundation. This type of foundation is provided below the water level. Well, foundations are usually like open caissons that are mostly used for bridge piers and abutments.

What Is the Strongest Foundation for a House?

The choice of the right type of foundation for the construction of any building depends on the type of soil on the site of the building and the type of building.

For lightweight and temporary building structures, shallow foundations are preferred. While a deep foundation is chosen for the construction of high-rise buildings.

The foundation is selected keeping in view external factors like earthquakes and cyclones. Strong materials are used for the foundation. A foundation, usually made of concrete, is a strong building material.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What Is the Strongest Foundation for a House?

Poured Concrete
Poured concrete is the strongest type of foundation for a house. Concrete is incredibly strong and durable, and it can be poured into any shape. This makes it ideal for supporting the weight of a house. Block foundations are also very strong, but they are not as flexible as poured concrete.

What Is a Foundation in Construction?

Foundation, Part of a structural system that supports and anchors the superstructure of a building and transmits its loads directly to the earth. To prevent damage from repeated freeze-thaw cycles, the bottom of the foundation must be below the frost line.

What Is Foundation in Building?

The foundation of the structure is the base level of the building and serves two primary functions: to keep moisture and groundwater out of the structure and to evenly distribute the weight among load-bearing walls to the ground beneath.

What Is Foundation in Building Construction?

Foundations provide the structure’s stability from the ground: To distribute the weight of the structure over a large area in order to avoid overloading the underlying soil (possibly causing unequal settlement).

What Is Shallow Foundation?

A shallow foundation is applied in cases where the good load-bearing soil is at a relatively low depth. The foundation depth must meet the safety requirements of the breakdown, whereby after the load application, the complete structure settlement will be within acceptable limits.

What Is Spread Footing Foundation?

Spread footings are used to support a foundation or set of piers below a building. To add additional support, spread footings are constructed with concrete and reinforced with steel.

What Is Deep Foundation?

A deep foundation is a type of foundation that transfers building loads to the earth farther down from the surface than a shallow foundation does to a subsurface layer or a range of depths.

How Deep Do Footings Need to Be?

12 inches
Footings should extend to a minimum depth of 12 inches below previously undisturbed soil. Footings also must extend at least 12 inches below the frost line (the depth to which the ground freezes in winter) or must be frost-protected.

How Deep Should Foundations Be?

For masonry or concrete construction, the minimum foundation wall will be 6 inches. The minimum reinforced concrete footing thickness will be 6 inches or 1-1/2 times the length of the footing projection from the foundation wall, whichever is greater. REQUIREMENTS.

How Do Pile Foundations Work?

A pile foundation is defined as a series of columns constructed or inserted into the ground to transmit loads to a lower level of subsoil. A pile is a long cylinder made up of strong material, such as concrete. Piles are pushed into the ground to act as steady support for structures built on top of them.

Purpose of Building Foundation

A proper foundation does more than just hold a house above the ground. Building foundations also keep out moisture, insulate against the cold, and resists the movement of the earth around it. Oh, and one more thing: It should last forever.

Types of House Foundations

There are five main foundation types and a handful of important variations.
  • Basement Foundation.
  • Crawlspace Stem Walls.
  • Concrete Slab Foundations.
  • Wood Foundations.
  • Pier and Beam Foundations.

Types of Shallow Foundation

The different types of shallow foundations are:
  • Spread or Isolated Footing;
  • Strip Foundation;
  • Mat or Raft Foundation;
  • Combined Foundation.

Spread Footing Foundation

A spread footing foundation has a wider bottom portion compared to a load-bearing foundation; the wider bottom “spreads” the weight of the structure over a larger area for greater stability.

How to Put a New Foundation Under an Existing House?

Underpinning: It is placing the new foundation below an existing foundation or the process of strengthening the existing foundation.

How Much Does a Basement Foundation Cost?

Installing an unfinished basement foundation costs $33 per square foot on average, while the cost to finish a basement adds $32 and $47 per square foot.

How Much Do Foundation Repairs Cost?

Overall, the cost of foundation repair tends to be between $2,000 and $7,500, with a national average of $4,500. You may be able to have very small cracks filled with epoxy for a few hundred dollars, but severe foundation problems can run you up from $15,000 to $25,000.

How Much Does a Slab Foundation Cost?

Slab foundations are less expensive to build – Slab foundations usually cost around $4,500 to $12,000. Crawl space foundations, on the other hand, usually cost around $8,000 to $21,000.

How Do You Know If You Have Foundation Issues?

Cracks in the walls or floor – Cracks can be horizontal, vertical, diagonal, or in a stair-step pattern, and they can appear on basement walls, drywall, slab floors, and around window and door frames. These are the most common signs of a foundation problem and indicate movement of some sort within your foundation.

How to Level a Slab Foundation?

In this method, we drill small holes into the slab and use these holes to inject a two-part urethane chemical mixture under the concrete. Once it is injected, the mixture expands into a foam. The expansion lifts the concrete and compresses soil to stabilize the entire foundation.

How Deep Are Foundation Footings?

Footings should extend to a minimum depth of 12 inches below previously undisturbed soil.

How to Build House Foundation Step by Step?

Foundation Construction Steps
  1. Groundbreaking, excavation. Grading the lot and getting it tested for compaction. Digging trenches for footings. …
  2. Footings dug, rebar set, inspection, footings poured. Installing rebar (and using safety caps) “Boom pumping” concrete.
  3. Polysteel stem wall forms, stems poured, rough-in plumbing.

How to Build a Foundation for a Small House?

After you’ve chosen land for your new small house kit and taken care of utility hookups, your next step in the process of building a small home is deciding which type of foundation it will have. This is one of the most important decisions you’ll make during the construction of your house kit.

How to Build a Concrete Slab Foundation for a House?

Slab-on-grade construction is a somewhat uncommon method of home building that replaces the conventional foundation wall and basement or crawl .

How Much Does a House Foundation Cost?

On average, a foundation costs around $8,500.

How Much Does a New Foundation Cost?

A new foundation can be expensive, depending on the scope of the project. On average, a concrete foundation costs around $8,500. On the low end, a foundation can cost around $6,000 and on the high end, a foundation will run close to $15,000. Total costs will vary depending on permits, labor, and the type of foundation.

How to Lay Foundation for a House?

Procedure for Construction of Foundation:
  1. Excavation of earthwork in trenches for foundation.
  2. Layout cement concrete.
  3. Lay the footing(as per the instructions of the structural engineer)
  4. Lay Anti termite treatment.
  5. Lay granites up to the plinth level.
  6. Lay a damp proof course on the walls.
  7. Refilling of the earth around the walls.

How to Cover Up a High House Foundation?

The simplest way to cover a cinder block wall is by using surface-bonding cement to create a concrete finish. Concrete helps insulate the building and keep moisture out. It creates a smooth, finished surface you can leave as is or paint.

How Much to Lay Foundation for House?

Foundation Installation Cost
Concrete costs between $4.25 and $6.25 per square foot, and the average size of a house is about 2,000 square feet. That can mean between $8,500 and $12,500 for concrete alone. Labor typically costs around $2.60 per square foot, which is about $5,200 for a 2,000-square-foot house.

How Deep Is a House Foundation?

Hence the best-recommended depth of the foundation is from 1.00 meters to 1.5 meters from the original ground level.

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