Introduction of Prismatic Compass
A prismatic compass is a navigational tool that has been used for centuries by explorers, surveyors, and military personnel. Its simple design and accurate measurements have made it a reliable instrument for determining direction and navigating through unknown territories. In this article, we will delve into the history, components, and uses of the prismatic compass, and how it has evolved into a modern and essential tool for land navigation. Whether you are a hiker, surveyor, or simply have an interest in the technology of navigation, this article will provide a comprehensive introduction to the prismatic compass and its significance in the field of navigation.
Instruments Used in Prismatic Compass Survey
Prismatic compass survey is a type of surveying method that uses a prismatic compass instrument to measure the horizontal angles between different points on the ground. This method is commonly used in surveying for small-scale projects such as road alignments, building layouts, and property surveys. The following are the instruments used in prismatic compass survey:
1. Prismatic Compass: The prismatic compass is the main instrument used in this survey method. It consists of a magnetic compass, a prism, and a sighting tube. The magnetic compass is used to determine the direction of the North, while the prism and sighting tube are used to measure the horizontal angles between different points.
2. Tripod Stand: A tripod stand is used to support the prismatic compass and keep it stable during the survey. The legs of the tripod stand can be adjusted to achieve a level and steady platform for the compass.
3. Measurement Tape: A measurement tape is used to measure the distances between the points where the angles are to be measured. The tape must be leveled and held in a straight line for accurate measurements.
4. Tripod: A tripod is used to mount the measurement tape and keep it stable during the survey. It is similar to the tripod stand used for the compass but is usually smaller in size.
5. Ranging Poles: Ranging poles are used to mark the points where the angles are to be measured. These poles are usually made of wood or metal and have a pointed end for easy insertion into the ground.
6. Clinometer: A clinometer is used to measure the vertical angles or slopes between points. It consists of a protractor and a level tube and is used in conjunction with the prismatic compass.
7. Plumb Bob: A plumb bob is used to ensure that the ranging poles are accurately positioned on the ground. It is a pointed metal weight attached to a string, and when hung vertically, it indicates a true vertical line.
8. Field Book: A field book is used to record the data obtained during the survey. It contains pages with columns for measuring angles, distances, and other relevant information.
9. Drawing Materials: Drawing materials such as pencils, erasers, rulers, and protractors are essential for preparing the final survey map or plan.
Instruments used in prismatic compass survey are simple and easy to use, making this method suitable for small-scale projects. However, it is important to handle and use these instruments with care to ensure accurate and reliable results.
Uses of Prismatic Compass
A prismatic compass is a navigational instrument that is used to measure horizontal angles, which is essential for surveying and construction projects. It consists of a magnetic needle that aligns itself with the Earth’s magnetic field and a prism that helps in reading the angle directly, making it accurate and convenient for use. The prismatic compass is used for a variety of purposes in the field of civil engineering. Some of the common uses of a prismatic compass are:
1. Surveying: A prismatic compass is a fundamental tool used in surveying to measure angles and bearing of a survey line. It helps in determining the direction and distance of a point from a particular reference point, which is crucial for creating maps, charts, and plans for construction projects.
2. Setting Up Grid Systems: In civil engineering, a grid system is used to establish a coordinate reference system for surveying and mapping purposes. A prismatic compass is used to measure the horizontal angles of a grid system, and combined with other surveying equipment, helps in marking the grid lines accurately on the field.
3. Stakeout: A prismatic compass can be used to stakeout a point or a precise location where a structure or a feature is to be built. It is useful in setting out the boundaries of the construction site, roads, fences, or any other structure.
4. Topographic Mapping: Topographic mapping is an important part of civil engineering, which involves creating a graphical representation of the Earth’s surface, showing the contour lines, elevations, and physical features. A prismatic compass is used in conjunction with other surveying equipment to measure angles and bearings of the topographical features accurately.
5. Alignment: A prismatic compass is used to align structures, such as roads, pipelines, and buildings, with existing structures or features on the ground. It helps in determining the direction and bearing of the existing structure, and with the help of angular measurements, engineers can ensure perfect alignment of the new construction.
6. Mining: In the mining industry, a prismatic compass is used to map and plan underground tunnels, mines, and other features. It helps in determining the direction of the tunnels and their alignment, which is crucial for safe and efficient mining operations.
7. Navigation: Prismatic compasses can also be used for basic navigation purposes, especially in areas where there is no access to modern navigation technology. It can be used to determine directions while hiking, trekking, or camping.
In conclusion, the prismatic compass is a versatile and essential tool in the field of civil engineering. It is used for a variety of purposes such as surveying, mapping, construction, and navigation. Its accuracy and simplicity make it a crucial equipment for civil engineers, and it continues to remain an integral part of their toolkit.
Parts of Prismatic Compass
A prismatic compass is a navigational and surveying instrument used by civil engineers to determine the direction and orientation of objects on the earth’s surface. It consists of a circular metal base on which a compass card is mounted, a magnetic needle, and a prism that enables the user to read the compass card while sighting a specific direction. Let’s take a closer look at the different parts of a prismatic compass:
1. Circular Base: The base of a prismatic compass is typically made of metal and is circular in shape. It is divided into 360 degrees, with north, south, east, and west marked on the base. The circular base has a level bubble that helps the user to ensure that the compass is held horizontally while taking measurements.
2. Compass Card: The compass card is the circular disc that is attached to the circular base. It is marked with 360 degrees, and the cardinal points are also indicated, such as north, south, east, and west. The compass card is aligned with the magnetic needle, and together they rotate to indicate the direction towards magnetic north.
3. Magnetic Needle: The magnetic needle is the most crucial part of a prismatic compass. It is a thin, magnetized needle that is mounted at the center of the compass card. The north-seeking end of the needle is painted red to distinguish it from the south-seeking end, which is usually painted white. The magnetic needle aligns itself with the earth’s magnetic field and points towards the north pole, indicating the direction of magnetic north.
4. Prism: The prism is a triangular-shaped glass that is attached to the circular base, just above the compass card. It is used to view the compass card while sighting a distant point. The prism reflects the image of the compass card, making it easier for the user to read the direction without looking down at the compass card.
5. Sighting Vane: The sighting vane is a metal arm that is attached to the circular base and extends outwards. It has a sighting notch at one end and a sight aperture at the other end. The user peers through the sight aperture to align the sighting notch with the object being sighted. This ensures accuracy in reading the direction.
6. Tripod Stand: Some prismatic compasses come with a tripod stand that provides stability while taking measurements. It consists of three legs that can be adjusted to different heights to suit the user’s needs.
7. Locking Mechanism: Many prismatic compasses have a locking mechanism that helps to keep the compass card and magnetic needle in place while taking measurements. This prevents the compass card from rotating or the needle from moving, ensuring accuracy.
In conclusion, a prismatic compass has several components that work together to determine the direction and orientation of objects on the earth’s surface. It is an essential tool for civil engineers as it helps in surveying, mapping, and construction activities. With its simple design and easy-to-use features, it remains a reliable and efficient instrument for navigation and surveying purposes.
Least Count and Bearing
Least count and bearing are two important concepts in the field of civil engineering that play a crucial role in precise measurement and layout of structures. Both these terms are closely related to surveying and are essential for accurate mapping, construction and design of any project.
The term “least count” refers to the smallest measurement that can be made using a particular tool or instrument. In other words, it is the minimum value that can be read or recorded by a measuring device. For instance, the least count of a ruler with millimeter markings would be 1mm, as it is the smallest unit that can be measured using that ruler.
In civil engineering, the least count is extremely crucial as it determines the accuracy of the measurements taken. The smaller the least count, the more precise the measurement will be. This is especially important in large-scale projects where even a minor error in measurement can lead to significant deviations in the final result. For example, in the construction of a bridge, even a small error in measurement can result in the bridge not being aligned properly, causing safety hazards.
The least count of various surveying instruments such as theodolites, total stations, and levels vary depending on their make and model. Hence, it is essential to select the right instrument with an appropriate least count for accurate measurements.
On the other hand, bearing refers to the direction or angle between two points as measured clockwise from the north direction. It is used to determine the orientation and layout of structures and is essential in defining the spatial relationship between two points.
In civil engineering, bearing is typically measured using a compass or a theodolite. It is expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds, with 1 degree being further divided into 60 minutes and 1 minute into 60 seconds. Bearings can be measured in any of the four quadrants, i.e., NE (northeast), SE (southeast), SW (southwest), and NW (northwest). This helps in accurately locating and positioning various elements of a project, such as roads, buildings, and drainage systems.
In addition to being used in construction and design, bearings are also essential in land surveying and map-making. The accurate bearing of a point can be determined by surveying the surrounding terrain and using trigonometric techniques.
In conclusion, least count and bearing are two fundamental concepts in civil engineering that assist in precise measurement and layout of structures. They play a critical role in the accurate and safe execution of any construction project. Civil engineers must have a thorough understanding of both these concepts to ensure the success and longevity of their projects.
Handling of Prismatic Compass
The prismatic compass is a navigational tool used in civil engineering for measuring the direction and angle of a line or for finding the bearing of a particular point. It is mostly used for surveying and land navigation, and is an essential tool for any civil engineer. In this article, we will discuss the handling of prismatic compass and its importance in civil engineering.
Components of Prismatic Compass:
Before we delve into the handling of prismatic compass, let’s first understand its components. The prismatic compass consists of a magnetic needle, a glass prism, a sighting mechanism, and a compass card. The magnetic needle is essential as it aligns itself with the earth’s magnetic field and helps in determining the direction. The glass prism is used to read the bearing of a point by pointing the compass towards it. The sighting mechanism helps in targeting the desired point, and the compass card displays the bearing in degrees.
Handling of Prismatic Compass:
1. Leveling the compass: The first step in handling a prismatic compass is to ensure that it is placed on a flat and level surface. This is vital because any difference in the level can affect the readings of the compass.
2. Taking a bearing: To take a bearing, the compass must be held at waist level and the compass card should be rotated until the north-south line is aligned with the magnetic needle. Then, using the sighting mechanism, the compass should be directed towards the desired point. The reading can be noted from the compass card, and the angle can be measured.
3. Adjusting for magnetic declination: Magnetic declination is the difference between true north and magnetic north, and it varies from place to place. It is crucial to adjust for this before taking any bearings, as failure to do so can result in inaccurate readings. This can be done by rotating the compass card to match the declination angle provided by a topographic map.
4. Closing the compass: After taking the bearing, the compass should be carefully closed and kept away from any magnetic sources. The sighting wire should be folded, and the compass should be kept in a protective case to avoid any damage.
Importance of Prismatic Compass in Civil Engineering:
The prismatic compass is an essential tool in civil engineering. It helps in taking accurate bearings, which are required for surveying and land navigation. It is used to measure angles and distances, which are essential for the construction of roads, bridges, and buildings. Prismatic compasses are also used for laying out boundaries and determining the positions of physical features on a topographic map. It is also used in mining, geology, and other fields where precise navigation is required.
In conclusion, the prismatic compass is an indispensable tool in civil engineering. Its proper handling and correct usage can provide accurate and reliable results, which are crucial for any construction project. Civil engineers must be proficient in using and handling this instrument to ensure the success of their projects. Regular maintenance and proper storage of the prismatic compass are also necessary to keep it in good working condition.
Adjustment of Prismatic Compass
One of the most important instruments used in the field of surveying is the prismatic compass. It is a device that is specifically designed to measure horizontal angles in surveying and navigation applications. The prismatic compass consists of a circular compass card with a magnetized needle, a sighting mechanism, and a prism that allows for easy reading of the compass.
However, in order to obtain accurate measurements and readings with a prismatic compass, it is essential to make appropriate adjustments. These adjustments are necessary due to various factors such as magnetic declination, local magnetic disturbances, and errors in the instrument itself.
The first adjustment that needs to be made to a prismatic compass is the magnetic declination, also known as the magnetic variation. This is the angle between true north (the direction towards the geographic north pole) and magnetic north (the direction towards the magnetic north pole). This angle varies depending on the location on the earth’s surface and can be determined using maps or by using a declination calculator. The prismatic compass must be adjusted to account for this angle, so that the readings obtained are corrected and reflect the true angles.
Another important adjustment for a prismatic compass is the index error. This is caused by any misalignment between the north-south axis of the compass and the magnetic north-south line. It can be determined by taking readings from two known points with true north-south alignment and then comparing them with the readings from the compass. If there is any difference, it must be corrected by adjusting the prism or by rotating the compass card to align with the magnetic north-south line.
Local magnetic disturbances, such as power lines, buildings, or other sources of magnetic fields, can also affect the readings of a prismatic compass. In order to minimize these disturbances, the compass must be held as far away as possible from such sources. It is also recommended to take multiple readings and average them to reduce errors caused by local magnetic disturbances.
Lastly, calibration is an important adjustment that needs to be done regularly to ensure the accuracy of a prismatic compass. This involves checking for any wear and tear, loose connections, or other issues that may affect the performance of the instrument. It is recommended to calibrate the compass at least once a year and before any important surveying project.
In conclusion, the prismatic compass is an essential instrument for surveying and navigation applications. However, it is important to make necessary adjustments to ensure accurate readings and measurements. By accounting for factors such as magnetic declination, index error, local magnetic disturbances, and regular calibration, we can have confidence in the accuracy of the readings obtained from a prismatic compass.
Sources of Errors in Prismatic Compass
Prismatic compass is a surveying instrument used for measuring horizontal angles. It consists of a circular compass card with a sighting device and a prism, which allows the observer to read the direction of a distant object at the same time as the magnetic bearing of the object. However, like any other instrument, prismatic compass is also prone to errors and it is important for civil engineers to understand these errors to ensure accurate surveying results. Here are some of the common sources of errors in prismatic compass:
1. Magnetic Declination: Magnetic declination is the angle between magnetic north and true north. This angle varies from place to place and can affect the accuracy of prismatic compass readings. If the declination is not taken into account, it can lead to errors in the magnetic bearing readings.
2. Local Attraction: Local attraction refers to the presence of magnetic materials near the compass, which can interfere with its proper functioning. This can be caused by underground metal pipes or man-made structures such as buildings. The presence of local attraction can result in incorrect magnetic bearing readings.
3. Levelling Errors: Leveling errors occur when the compass is not set up on a level surface. This can cause the compass needle to tilt, leading to incorrect readings. To avoid this error, it is important to ensure that the compass is set up on a flat and level surface.
4. Parallax Error: Parallax error occurs when the observer does not have their eye exactly in line with the sighting device when reading the compass. This can cause the needle to appear to be pointing at a different direction, leading to incorrect readings.
5. Poor Quality of Compass: Another source of error in prismatic compass is the use of poor quality instruments. This can include a low-quality compass needle or a damaged prism. These defects can affect the accuracy of readings and lead to errors.
6. Human Error: Human error, such as misreading the compass or recording the wrong readings, can also result in errors. This can be avoided by proper training of the surveyor and double-checking readings before recording them.
7. Environmental Conditions: Environmental factors such as strong winds, vibrations, and extreme temperatures can also affect the accuracy of prismatic compass readings. These factors can cause the compass needle to move or the prism to fog up, leading to errors.
To minimize these errors, it is important for civil engineers to properly calibrate and maintain their prismatic compasses, take into account any local declination or attraction, and ensure accurate setup and readings. By understanding these sources of errors and taking appropriate measures to minimize them, civil engineers can ensure reliable and accurate surveying results with a prismatic compass.
In conclusion, the prismatic compass is an essential tool for surveying and navigation. Its unique design with a prism and internal compass provides accurate reading and eliminates errors caused by magnetic interference. With its lightweight and compact structure, the prismatic compass is convenient to carry and use in various settings. Its capabilities have proven to be invaluable for military operations, engineering projects, and outdoor adventures. As technology advances, the prismatic compass continues to evolve, but its fundamental principles and purpose remain unchanged. Overall, the introduction of the prismatic compass has greatly improved the accuracy and efficiency of surveying and navigation and will continue to play a vital role in various fields.