# Introduction of Shuttering

Shuttering is an essential component in any construction project, providing support and structure to the pouring and setting of concrete. It is a temporary framework made of wooden or metal boards that is used to provide the necessary shape and form to concrete until it is hardened and can hold its own weight. Shuttering is an age-old technique that has been integral to the construction industry for centuries, and its importance cannot be overstated. In this article, we will delve into the history, purpose, and various types of shuttering, as well as its role in modern construction practices. Whether you are a seasoned construction professional or simply curious about the intricacies of building structures, understanding the basics of shuttering is a must. So, let’s explore the

## Requirements of Good Shuttering

Shuttering is a temporary structure used in construction to support and mold concrete into desired shapes and sizes until it hardens. It is an essential component in the construction process, and it must be of good quality to ensure the stability and safety of the structure under construction. Here are some key requirements that make a good shuttering:

1. Strength and Durability: The shuttering should be able to withstand the weight of the fresh concrete and other construction materials placed on it. It should also be able to withstand external forces such as wind and vibrations during the casting process. The materials used for shuttering should be strong and durable to ensure that it maintains its shape and form throughout the construction process.

2. Ease of Handling and Assembly: Shuttering is a temporary structure and is often reused for different structures. Therefore, it should be easy to handle, transport, and assemble on-site quickly. This will save time and labor costs during construction. The size and weight of the components should be manageable, and the assembly process should be straightforward.

3. Stability: The shuttering structure should be stable and rigid to prevent any movement or displacement during the casting process. This will ensure that the concrete is poured into the desired shape and size without any distortion. Moreover, a stable shuttering structure will provide a safe working environment for the construction workers.

4. Water Resistance: Shuttering is exposed to water from fresh concrete and weather elements. Hence, it should be made of water-resistant materials to avoid any deformation or damage. This is especially important in concrete structures that are placed in water or in areas with high humidity.

5. Smooth Surface Finish: The inner surface of the shuttering structure should be smooth to ensure a smooth finish on the concrete surface. This is essential in architectural concrete structures where the surface finish is critical for the overall appearance of the building.

6. Reusability: Shuttering is used repeatedly for different construction projects, and therefore, it should be reusable. The materials used should be strong enough to withstand multiple uses without any significant wear and tear. This will save costs and minimize construction waste.

7. Proper Ventilation: Shuttering should be designed with proper ventilation to allow the escape of air and moisture from the concrete during the casting process. This will prevent any air pockets or cracks from forming in the concrete, resulting in a stronger and more durable structure.

8. Easy Removal: The removal of shuttering after concrete has cured should be a straightforward process that does not damage the structure. The design of the shuttering should allow for easy removal without any obstruction or damage to the finished structure.

In conclusion, proper design, choice of materials, and construction techniques are essential in achieving a good quality shuttering structure. The above requirements ensure that the shuttering provides a stable and safe support for the concrete, resulting in a strong and durable structure. Hence, it is crucial to adhere to these requirements in the selection and construction of shuttering structures for successful construction projects.

## How to Calculate Shuttering Area

Shuttering, also known as formwork, is a temporary structure used in construction to support the weight of freshly poured concrete until it reaches the required strength to support itself. It is an essential part of the construction process and plays a crucial role in ensuring the strength and stability of the structure.

Calculating the shuttering area is an essential step in the construction process as it helps in estimating the quantity of materials required for formwork and accurately predicting the cost of the project. The following are the steps to calculate the shuttering area.

Step 1: Understand the formwork requirements

The first step is to understand the formwork requirements, which mainly depend on the type of structure being built, its size, shape, and complexity. The formwork can be made of various materials, such as timber, plywood, steel, or aluminum. The type of material used will affect the calculation of the shuttering area as each material has a different thickness and can be cut in different sizes.

Step 2: Measure the dimensions of the structure

Next, the dimensions of the structure must be accurately measured. This includes the length, width, and height of the walls, columns, beams, and slabs. It is essential to take into account any protrusions or recesses in the structure, as they will affect the overall shuttering area.

Step 3: Calculate the surface area

In this step, the surface area of each formwork component is calculated separately. For walls and columns, the surface area is calculated by multiplying the length and height. For beams and slabs, the surface area is calculated by multiplying the length and width. Any protrusions or recesses must also be taken into account in this step.

Step 4: Add the surface areas

After calculating the surface areas of each formwork component, they must be added to determine the total surface area. This will give an estimate of the amount of material required for the entire structure.

Step 5: Consider the formwork wastage

Formwork wastage is the amount of material that is lost during the construction process due to cutting, trimming, or improper handling. It is essential to factor in this wastage while calculating the shuttering area as it can significantly affect the overall cost of the project.

Step 6: Convert into square meters

The final step is to convert the calculated surface area into square meters, which is the standard unit used for measuring the shuttering area. For this, multiply the total surface area by the quantity of material required for each square meter of formwork.

In conclusion, calculating the shuttering area is a crucial step in the construction process that must be done accurately and carefully. Any errors in the calculation can lead to delays, cost overruns, and affect the overall structural integrity of the building. As a civil engineer, it is important to ensure that the shuttering area is calculated correctly to ensure a successful and safe construction process.

## Calculation of Shuttering Area of a Column

Shuttering is the temporary formwork used in concrete construction to support and mold freshly poured concrete until it sets and gains enough strength to support itself. It is an important part of the concrete construction process as it ensures that the final structure has the desired shape and dimensions.

Calculating the shuttering area of a column is a crucial task for a civil engineer. It determines the quantity of materials required for the formwork and also helps in estimating the overall cost of the project. In this article, we will discuss in detail the process of calculating the shuttering area of a column.

Step 1: Determining the Dimensions of the Column

The first step in calculating the shuttering area of a column is to determine its dimensions. These dimensions include the cross-sectional area, height, and length of the column. The cross-sectional area is measured by multiplying the length and width of the column. The height of the column is the vertical distance from the foundation to the top of the column. The length of the column is the horizontal distance between the center lines of the two adjacent columns.

Step 2: Calculating the Total Surface Area of the Column

The total surface area of the column is the sum of its four sides and the top and bottom surfaces. To calculate the surface area, multiply the perimeter by the height. The perimeter can be calculated by adding the length of all four sides of the column.

Step 3: Determining the Number of Columns

The next step is to determine the number of columns that will be constructed in the project. This will depend on the structural design and the layout of the building. The number of columns will directly affect the overall shuttering area required for the project.

Step 4: Adding the Allowances

In order to get an accurate estimation of the shuttering area, certain allowances need to be added to the calculated area. These allowances are for the joints, corners, and overlaps of the formwork. The standard allowance for joints is 1 cm per square meter of the shuttering area, while 5 cm is added for corners and overlaps.

Step 5: Calculating the Total Shuttering Area of the Column

The final step is to add all the dimensions and allowances calculated above to get the total shuttering area of the column. The formula for the total shuttering area is as follows:

Total Shuttering Area = Number of Columns x Total Surface Area x Allowances

It is important to note that the total shuttering area calculated should be in square meters as most suppliers sell shuttering materials in square meters.

In conclusion, calculating the shuttering area of a column is a crucial part of the construction process. It requires accurate measurements and considerations for allowances to ensure the correct materials are used and the project stays within the budget. With the above-mentioned steps, a civil engineer can easily and accurately calculate the shuttering area of a column.

## Calculation of Shuttering Area of a Beam

Shuttering is an important component in the construction process of a reinforced concrete beam. It is the temporary structure or framework placed to support the concrete during its curing and hardening process. The proper calculation of shuttering area is crucial for the success of a construction project as it ensures the stability and strength of the beam.

The following are the steps to calculate the shuttering area of a beam:

1. Determine the dimensions of the beam: The first step is to determine the dimensions of the beam such as the length, width, and height. This information can be obtained from the structural drawings provided by the structural engineer.

2. Calculate the perimeter of the beam: The perimeter of the beam is the sum of all the sides of the beam. It is calculated by adding the length and width of the beam and multiplying it by two.

Perimeter = 2 x (Length + Width)

3. Calculate the area of the beam: The area of the beam is calculated by multiplying the length and width of the beam.

Area of the Beam = Length x Width

4. Determine the number of sides of the beam: The number of sides of the beam depends on its shape. A rectangular beam has four sides, while an L-shaped beam has six sides. Count the number of sides of the beam to determine the number of shuttering panels required.

5. Calculate the area of each shuttering panel: The area of each panel is determined by dividing the perimeter of the beam by the number of sides of the beam.

Shuttering Area of each panel = Perimeter ÷ Number of sides

6. Calculate the total area of shuttering required: Multiply the area of each shuttering panel by the number of panels required for the beam.

Total Shuttering Area = Shuttering Area of each panel x Number of panels

7. Add an extra allowance for joints and overlaps: To account for the joints and overlaps between the shuttering panels, it is advisable to add an extra 10-15% of the calculated area.

Total Shuttering Area with allowance = Total Shuttering Area x (1 + Overlap percentage)

8. Calculate the total area of the beam: The final step is to add the shuttering area to the area of the beam to get the total area of the beam.

Total Area of the Beam = Area of the Beam + Shuttering Area with allowance

Calculating the shuttering area helps in determining the quantity of materials required for the construction, such as plywood, timber, and nails. It also helps in cost estimation and budget planning for the project. It is essential to ensure a proper calculation of the shuttering area to avoid any delays or errors in the construction process.

## Calculation of Shuttering Area of a Slab

Shuttering, also known as formwork, is a temporary structure used to support the concrete during its setting and hardening process. It is an important aspect of any construction project, as it provides the necessary shape and structure to the concrete until it becomes self-supporting.

In the case of a slab, shuttering is used to create the form and support the weight of the concrete until it cures. As a civil engineer, it is crucial to accurately calculate the shuttering area of a slab to ensure the structural integrity of the final product. The following are the steps to calculate the shuttering area of a slab:

Step 1: Determine the size and shape of the slab

The first step is to determine the size and shape of the slab that needs to be shuttered. This includes the length, width, and thickness of the slab. The dimensions can be taken from the construction drawings or directly measured on the site.

Step 2: Calculate the perimeter of the slab

The perimeter of the slab is the sum of all four sides. For a rectangular slab, it can be calculated by adding length and width together and multiplying by 2. For a circular slab, the perimeter can be calculated by multiplying the diameter by π (3.14).

Step 3: Calculate the area of the slab

The area of the slab can be determined by multiplying the length and width of the slab for a rectangular shape or by using the formula πr² for a circular shape, where “r” is the radius.

Step 4: Determine the total area of the slab including wastage

A certain amount of wastage is expected in the construction process, and it is important to account for this in the calculation. The wastage factor for shuttering typically ranges from 5% to 10% depending on the complexity of the slab design. The total area of the slab, including the wastage, can be calculated by multiplying the area of the slab by (1+ wastage percentage).

Step 5: Calculate the area of the sides

The sides of the slab also need to be shuttered, and their area must be calculated separately. For a rectangular slab, the area of the sides is equal to the perimeter of the slab multiplied by the slab’s thickness. For a circular slab, the area of the sides can be calculated using the formula πdh, where “d” is the diameter and “h” is the thickness.

Step 6: Calculate the total area of the shuttering

Once the area of the sides and the slab have been determined, the total area of the shuttering can be calculated by adding these two values together.

Step 7: Account for openings and cutouts

If the slab has any openings or cutouts, their area must be deducted from the total shuttering area calculated in the previous step. The size and location of the openings should be specified in the construction drawings.

Step 8: Round off to the nearest whole number

The final step in the calculation is to round off the total shuttering area to the nearest whole number.

In conclusion, the calculation of shuttering area for a slab is a crucial step in the construction process. It must be done accurately to ensure the stability and strength of the final structure. As a civil engineer, it is your responsibility to carefully analyze the design and specifications to determine the most suitable shuttering materials and accurately calculate the required shuttering area.

## Conclusion

In conclusion, the introduction of shuttering has revolutionized the field of construction. Its versatility, durability, and cost-effectiveness have made it an essential tool for constructing various structures. From small residential projects to large scale commercial buildings, shuttering provides a solid framework that ensures the strength and stability of the structure. With modern technology and advancements, shuttering techniques continue to evolve, making construction processes more efficient and streamlined. As the demand for high-quality and sustainable buildings grows, the use of shuttering will only continue to increase in the construction industry. Its introduction has undoubtedly transformed the way we build, and it will continue to play a vital role in shaping our built environment for years to come.