Type of Building Materials

 all about Building Materials

Table of Contents

What Is Building Materials?

What Is Building Materials?Materials used for construction purposes, such as wood, concrete, steel, cement, aggregate, bricks, clay, metal, etc., are called building materials.

It usually uses a variety of materials for construction purposes.

In the old days, people used bricks, or wood, for building construction. But in the modern age, engineers have learned to use the right materials for high-rise buildings.

Materials are selected for any building based on the client’s budget and building projects.

Various building materials are used to create a quality structure for any building. The construction of any building is based on its need.

Therefore managers and field engineers for the project should carefully analyze the required materials.

The Importance of Selecting the Right Building Materials

  1. The Importance of Selecting the Right Building MaterialsThe quality of a building made of suitable building materials types has a big impact on the life of the building, including its ability to function as earthquake proof houses. Many problems arise in construction when materials are cheap and low. And the life of the house will not last long.
  2. The choice of the right building materials to use is often overlooked. Of building materials.

Type of Building Materials

The building material used in construction is described as follows,

1. Mud and Clay in Building Material

Mud and Clay in Building Material

  • Mud is the result of water and soil dence mixing. The formation of mud is due to soil erosion after rainfall near rivers or water sources. After drying for a while, the mud hardens to form mud.
  • Mud is a semi-liquid material used in building construction. The use of mud sticks to coats, seals, or other materials due to its properties. Depending on the use of mud, it has been given many different names. The various names include slurry, mortar, plaster, stucco, and concrete.

Application

  1. In the early years, stone, mud, and other materials were used as building materials. In the old days, mud was used to fill the gap between bricks and stone.
  2. A building built using mud as a building material was not as strong as concrete, but a mud house is able to keep the house cool during the summer.
  3. In general, materials such as stone, gravel, lime, and bitumen can be mixed with soil and water to form walls, floors, and ceilings.

Also Read: Density Of Cement, Sand, And Aggregate | What Is Density of Building Material | Density of RCC

2. Sand in Building Material

Sand in Building Material

  • Sand is naturally composed of mineral particles due to the erosion process of the rock. The most common component of sand is silica, which is usually found in the form of quartz.
  • The formation of sand is due to changes in the climate of the rocks. According to natural resources, sand is classified as follows: Pit sand, River sand, and Sea sand.

Application

  • Sand is mainly used as a building material in works like concrete, masonry, plastering, waterproofing, china mosaic, etc.

3. Clay Bricks in Building Material

Clay Bricks in Building Material

  • Mud bricks are known as clay bricks in building construction. In Spanish territory, mud-brick construction is commonly called adobe.
  • Mud brick is prepared by air drying. Mud brick is made from a mixture of loam, mud, sand, and water.
  • Mud bricks have been used in buildings and other structures for thousands of years.
  • We have also been doing Cooking Pits and Ovens in rural areas.
  • Mud brick is used as a paver, as a path, and as a border in the garden.

4. Aggregates in Building Material

Aggregates in Building Material

  • Aggregate is a building material. Aggregate is used to form bases for roads, bridges, and buildings. Aggregate is used in over 90% of asphalt pavements and up to 80% of concrete mixes.
  • The aggregate size of building materials ranges from 4.75 mm to 18 mm. Aggregate with rough and non-glassy texture helps to get good strength with cement paste.

Generally, the use of aggregates for concrete is classified into 2 types: –

  • Coarse aggregates:- >4.75 mm
  • Fine aggregates:- <4.75 mm.

Also Read: What Are Traps in Plumbing? | 14 Type of Trap in Plumbing

5. Stone or Rock in Building Material

Stone or Rock in Building Material

  • Rock is a naturally available material on the construction site. It can be used in construction and outdoors in various places. The stone used for construction should be hard, durable, and free from cracks. So that the strength and durability of the rock do not change.
  • Stone for construction can be used in different places depending on the need of the property.
  • There are many different types of stones available in different places. Stones such as basalt, marble, limestone, sandstone, quartzite, travertine, slate, guinea, laterite, granite, etc., can be used as building materials.
  • Stone is the oldest building material used in the world. Rock is used in important monuments and buildings due to its strength and durability. It is also used in places of worship, forts, and palaces.

Some different well-known types of stone are as follows

  • Marble
  • Granite
  • Sandstone
  • Slate
  • Laterite
  • Limestone.

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6. Wood and Timber in Building Material

Wood and Timber in Building Material

  • Wood is the most useful and important building material for construction. It is very important to choose from different types of timber.
  • Timber must be strong, tough, and durable to be used for various purposes in the building. The use of wood in wooden doors or windows contributes to interior decoration and appearance.
  • The use of teakwood is most appropriate in the construction of buildings. Lakewood is naturally durable with good quality. Builders are preferred for their various characteristics, durability, and natural appearance.

Application of Timber

  • Door/windows frame and shutters
  • Cupboard
  • Flooring
  • Cabinets
  • Construction of earthquake-proof buildings.

7. Thatch in Building Material

Thatch in Building Material

  • Thatch, or synthetic thatch roof, is a layer of naturally occurring or synthetic organic matter that accumulates on the lawn around grass plants.
  • Thatch is a mixture of living and dead plant material, including stolons, rhizomes, and roots.
  • A small amount of thatch can work effectively against temperature and humidity fluctuations. This method was commonly used for roofing.
  • Thatch is used in developing countries because of its low cost. In developed countries, the home uses thatch for a rustic look.

Application

  • Thatch is commonly used for roofing materials with properties such as good impression, good water resistance, and good wind resistance.

8. Cement in Building Material

Cement in Building Material

  • Cement, often sourced from a calcium silicate ceiling manufacturer, is used for construction as a binder.. Cement used in construction is usually based on lime or calcium silicate. Which can be classified as non-hydraulic cement and hydraulic cement based on the process of setting cement in the presence of water.
  • Non-hydraulic cement does not set in wet conditions or underwater. This type of cement reacts with carbon dioxide in the air.
  • Hydraulic cement is formed due to a chemical reaction between dry elements and water. This type of cement is very durable in water and resistant to chemical attacks.

Cement is used in construction for some of the following purposes

  • concrete is used for foundations, beams, columns, chajja, lintels, etc. for building construction.
  • Cement + sand = Mortar. Mortar is used in plaster, masonry work, waterproofing, etc.
  • Cement slurry:- Slurry is used for fixing tiles.

9. Foam in Building Material

Foam in Building Material

Synthetic polystyrene or polyurethane foam is used in construction. Foam is lightweight and an excellent insulator. It is commonly used in buildings as a structural expansion joint.

Applications of Foam

Foam is used as an insulator material in homes or buildings.

10. Glass in Building Material

Glass in Building Material

  • Glass, including polycarbonate roof domes, is a product of a mixture of sand and silicates. Glass is widely used as a building material in modern times.
  • Glass is commonly used in window panels. Which has a transparent surface. The purpose of this is to bring light into the building. And is able to keep outdoor weather.
  • Nowadays glass is used for architectural purposes in the outer part of the height of modern buildings.

Applications of Glass

  1. Float glass is used in the front of the shop and as railing partitions.
  2. Laminated glass is used in bridges, stairs, floor slabs, etc.
  3. In addition, clear vision-type glass is used in houses for elevation purposes.
  4. Double-glazed glass is used for insulation purposes in houses.

11. Gypcrete in Building Material

Gypcrete in Building Material

  • Gypcrete is commonly used in wooden frames as a building construction material. It is also used in concrete construction for fire rating, noise reduction, heat absorption, and floor leveling.
  • Gypcrete is used as a flooring material by architects and designers. Gypcrete is used as a building material due to its properties and advantages.

Applications of Gypcrete

  1. Flooring
  2. Ceilings
  3. Rapid wall

12. Fabric Structures in Building Material

Fabric Structures in Building Material

  • Fabric, especially in large fabric buildings, is used in many places as a building material. Nowadays, fabric structure is used to provide users with a variety of aesthetic building designs.
  • Fabric structures are a type of tensile structures. The fabric structure can be given a three-dimensional shape. Fabric Structures can be used as a ceiling, shading, or decoration. Fabric structures can cover a larger area without columns than traditional roof systems.
  • Usually, fabric structures are made from real fabric material.
  • Usually, the fabric can be coated and laminated with synthetic materials to increase its strength. In addition, properties such as durability and environment can be provided.

Application of fabric:-

  1. This type of building material can be used to cover a large area and build stadium domes.
  2. This type of building material is used for tents and low-tension frame structures.

Also Read: Density Of Cement, Sand, And Aggregate | What Is Density of Building Material | Density of RCC

13. Steel in Building Material

Steel in Building Material

  • Steel is used in construction as a strong building material with excellent strength in both tension and compression, often used in manhole shutters.
    It is especially used for the infrastructural structures of tall buildings and large industries.
  • Structural steel is available in various standard shapes such as angles, c- beams, and C-channels in various elements. These shapes can be designed into any shape by welding with each other. Since steel is capable of resisting large forces and distortions, it can be used to make high-strength bolts for fixing the structure.
  • Steel is the most expensive building material, so it is the responsibility of the structural engineer to choose the economic size and shape according to the actual load of the building.
  • Steel is used as reinforcement in concrete to provide tensile strength to the component. Steel reinforcement is used because the concrete is weak in tensile strength.

Applications of Steel

  1. Pipe fittings, manhole covers
  2. Roofing and accessories
  3. High strength bolts
  4. Kitchen platforms
  5. Stair.

14. Plastic in Building Material

Plastic in Building Material

Different types of plastic materials, such as polystyrene ceiling panels, are being used in the construction industry. The following are some examples of plastics used in buildings.

  • Expanded Polystyrene
  • Polycarbonate
  • Acrylic
  • Polyethylene
  • Polypropylene
  • Polyvinyl Chloride.

As plastic is lightweight, it can be easily transported and worked. plastic does not rot. The plastic surface is durable, and knock-and-scratch-resistant. Plastic material can be easily removed and recycled easily.

Applications

1. Pipes 

  • Plastic pipes are used in electrical conduits, rainwater, and sewage pipes, plumbing, gas distribution, etc.

2. Cables

  • Plastic is used to make PVC insulation on cables and in insulation tapes.

3. Windows & doors

  • Plastic is used in the section for doors and windows, and panels.

4. Storage tanks.


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Frequently Asked Questions

What Is Building Materials?

Building material is material used for construction. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, wood, and even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic.

What Materials Are Used to Build a House?

The materials like metal, sand, bricks, steel, cement, concrete, glass, plastic, etc are used to build a house. These materials used to build a house play a very important role in deciding the strength and durability of the house.

What Are the Materials Used for Construction?

Some of the common construction materials include wood, concrete, steel, cement, bricks, and metal. In this modern era, engineers use the efficient techniques of ‘mix and match’ to come up with the best construction material and build high-quality structures.

What Materials Are Used to Build a House in Cities?

The materials like metal, sand, bricks, steel, cement, concrete, glass, plastic, etc are used to build a house. These materials used to build a house play a very important role in deciding the strength and durability of the house. The material cost and quality totally depend on your budget and choices.

What Is Construction Materials?

Construction material means an article, material, or supply brought to the construction site by the Contractor or a subcontractor for incorporation into the building or work. The term also includes an item brought to the site preassembled from articles, materials, or supplies.

What Materials Do You Need to Build a House?

Building material is material used for construction. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, wood, and even twigs and leaves, have been used to build houses.

What Is the Cheapest Building Material?

Cheapest Materials to Build a House

  1. Shipping containers.
  2. Reclaimed wood.
  3. Bamboo.
  4. Brick.
  5. Cob.

What Materials Are Houses Made Of?

The materials like metal, sand, bricks, steel, cement, concrete, glass, plastic, etc are used to build a house. These materials used to build a house play a very important role in deciding the strength and durability of the house.

What Type of Material Is Reinforced Concrete?

Reinforced concrete is a composite material. This means that it is made up of different constituent materials with very different properties that complement each other. In the case of reinforced concrete, the component materials are almost always concrete and steel. The steel is the reinforcement.

What Is the Cheapest Ceiling Material?

If you’re looking for an affordable option that’s low maintenance and easy to install, consider a glue-on or staple-on ceiling. They’re available in basic textures and elaborate designs and attach directly to the existing ceiling or onto furring strips attached to the ceiling.

What Is the Strongest Building Material?

Steel. Steel is a popular material for building because it is strong without being extremely heavy. This makes it the ideal material for large, multi-story buildings and manufacturing and industrial facilities. Unlike wood, steel can stand up to moisture and is not susceptible to termites and fire.

What Materials Are Needed to Build a House?

  1. Wood. Humans have been using wood for thousands of years to build shelters and structures.
  2. Steel. Steel is a popular material for building because it is strong without being extremely heavy.
  3. Concrete. Concrete is the combination of cement, aggregates like sand or stone, and water.
  4. Masonry.

What Are Building Materials?

Wood, cement, aggregates, metals, bricks, concrete, and clay are the most common type of building materials used in construction. The choice of these is based on their cost-effectiveness for building projects.

What Are Construction Materials?

Construction material means an article, material, or supply brought to the construction site by the Contractor or a subcontractor for incorporation into the building or work. The term also includes an item brought to the site preassembled from articles, materials, or supplies.

What Materials Are Used to Construct the House?

  1. Classic Wood. Wood is an attractive option for home design and it’s often used to complement other materials.
  2. Dependable Concrete.
  3. Sophisticated Stone.
  4. Sturdy Steel.

What Are Sustainable Building Materials?

Sustainable building materials are about choosing materials manufactured from resource-efficient processes such as choosing materials of a low embodied energy content, using locally provided and renewable energy sources, as well as selecting materials that contribute fewer amounts of GHG emissions to the atmosphere.

What Is Hardwood Used for in Construction?

Hardwoods are commonly used in the construction of walls, ceilings, and floors, while softwoods are often used to make doors, furniture, and window frames. Some examples of the most popular hardwoods include oak, maple, mahogany, cherry, walnut, and teak.

What Is the Most Common Building Material?

Concrete. Concrete is the most widely used building material in the world, making it a good starting material to get to know.

Which Foam Board Insulation Is Best for Basement Walls?

As the insulation board is acting as a moisture barrier, use medium- to high-density foam board with good moisture resistance properties such as extruded polystyrene and Type IV expanded polystyrene.

What Is the Most Sustainable Building Material?

  1. Bamboo.
  2. Plant-Based Polyurethane.
  3. Recycled Steel.
  4. Recycled Rubber.

Which Rock Is a Popular Building Stone?

Granite is especially popular for counters, floors, etc. Obsidian and other hard stones can also be used in the framework to create building blocks. Metamorphic stone has been transformed from an existing rock as a result of physical and chemical changes, such as pressure or temperature.

What Is Clay Brick?

Clay bricks are produced by the drying and firing of clay or shale raw material, forming a sintered porous structure. Similarly, the drying and sintering of pelletized clay or shale can produce a usable aggregate, but more especially if the raw material is capable of being ‘bloated’.

Plastic Building Materials

Plastics are manufactured in different forms such as molding pipes, sheets, and films. They are formed or expanded to produce materials of low density. Dissolved in solvents or dispersed as emulsions, they are used in paints, varnishes, and adhesives.

Building Materials

Wood, cement, aggregates, metals, bricks, concrete, and clay are the most common type of building materials.

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