Types of Beams in Constructions

Types of Beams in Constructions

Introduction of Beam

Different types of beams are used as required in the construction of buildings and structures to withstand the vertical load, shear force, and bending moments of horizontal structural elements on the building. The beam transfers the load to the foundation through the walls and columns.

In the article, we will learn about the different types of beams used in building construction. The type of beam is characterized by support position, cross-section shape (profile), length and material, etc.

Types of Beams in Constructions

Different types of beams are classified on the following basis

Based on Construction Materials

Based on Shape Of Cross Section

  • Rectangular Beam
  • T-Section Beam
  • I – Beam
  • L-Section Beam

Based on Support Conditions

  • Fixed Beam
  • Simply Supported Beam
  • Overhanging Beam
  • Cantilever Beam
  • Continuous Beam

Based on Geometry

  • Straight Beam
  • Tapered Beam
  • Curved Beam

Based on Equilibrium Condition

  • Statically Determinate Beam
  • Statically Indeterminate Beam

Based on Method of Construction

  • Cast In-situ Concrete Beam
  • Prestressed Concrete Beam
  • Precast Concrete Beam

Types of Beam: Based on Construction Materials

1. Reinforced Concrete Beams 

Reinforced Concrete Beams

  • Reinforced concrete (RC) is made using composite materials such as concrete and reinforcement. This type of beam is placed for reinforcement due to the low tensile strength and flexibility of the concrete. Thus, higher tensile strength or ductility can be obtained by providing reinforcement as required in this type of beam.

2. Timber Beams

Timber Beams

  • Nowadays, timber is used for decoration in the modern construction industry. Its use is avoided for the construction structure of the building. Due to the easy availability of wood in the village, wooden beams of the past are used.
  • The timber beam needs to be maintained properly from time to time. Therefore, timber beam can be a strong and durable building material for the structure if it is periodically inspected and maintained.
  • However, due to the various advantages of concrete beams, the use of timber for building materials is limited.

3. Steel Beams

Steel Beams

  • Steel beams are made from raw steel material to support heavy structural loads. The use of steel beams has higher strength and inertia than concrete beams in the structure of a building. Steel beams are manufactured in the factory in different shapes and sizes according to the construction.
  • Steel beams are used in various steel structures. Structures such as workshops, steel roofs, trusses, bridges, etc., can be constructed.

4. Composite Beams 

Composite Beams

  • This type of beam is made as a structural member using more different materials, which are used in the structure of buildings to jointly act as a unit. In some building structures, steel-concrete composite beams are used to obtain strength and ductility as required.
  • Composite beams can be made using materials such as steel wood, wood-concrete, and plastic-concrete.

Types of Beam: Based on Shape Of Cross Section

1. Rectangular Beam

Rectangular Beam

  • The cross-section of the rectangular beam experiences tension at the bottom of the beam and compression at the top.
  • Therefore, more reinforcement is given at the bottom than in the upper part of the cross-section of the beam. Rectangular beams are most commonly used in building construction.

2. T-Section Beam

T-Section Beam

  • T-beams can be made of reinforced concrete or wood with a T-shaped cross-section in construction. The top of the T-shaped cross-section in construction resists compressive stress as a compression member. In the T beam, the web (vertical section) of the beam below the compression flange resists shear stress and bending.

3. I – Beam

I – Beam

  • I beams are used in the construction of steel structures. I beams can safely resist deflection and bending moments in steel structures.
  • I-section beams are made as per the requirement prepared in the factory. The section beam consists of the top flange, web, and bottom flange.
  • I beam Section is used in critical support trusses in buildings. The I beam ensures the integrity of the structure with greater strength than other beam sections.

4. L-Section Beam

L-Section Beam

  • L – The beam is monolithic with a concrete slab in a reinforced concrete structure. This type of beam is used as a beam around a stair or lift opening. L-beam is a component of the structure of a building with slabs.
  • The L-beam is usually provided around the perimeter of the slab.

Also Read: What Is Composite Roofing? | Types of Composition Roofing | Composition Roof Cost

Types of Beam: Based on Support Conditions

1. Fixed Beam

Fixed Beam

  • Both ends of this type of beam are fixed. In addition, the rotational movement in the fixed beam is controlled. Since the fixed beam is fixed at its ends, its end cannot be rotated.
  • The fixed beam is placed to resist intense pressure. This type of beam does not produce any reaction. It is used in high-rise buildings and industrial construction.

2. Simply Supported Beam

Simply Supported Beam

  • The simple structural elements of this type of building rest on both end bases. But this type of beam has pinned support at one end and roller support at the other end. In addition, this type of beam resists shear stress and bending moments.

3. Overhanging Beam

Overhanging Beam

  • This type of beam is usually a simple supporting beam-like structure. But in an overhanging beam, one end extends some distance from the support.
  • Typically, the beam is given to each end to transfer the load through the column. In an overhanging beam, one end of the beam is supported by a column, and the other end is overhung away from the support.
  • Overhanging Beam is commonly used in residential buildings designed to create shades or balconies.
  • The Double Overhanging Beam has overhanging at both ends, slightly away from the support.

4. Cantilever Beam

Cantilever Beam

  • In this type of beam, one end of it has a fix. And the other end is free. Cantilever beams are used especially for parking and sheds of the railway station.
  • Cantilever beams are widely used in the construction of residential buildings, especially cantilever bridges, and balconies.

5. Continuous Beam

Continuous Beam

  • A type of beam that has two or more supports in a beam is called a continuous beam.
  • This type of beam is also known as a continuous beam. In which the beam is supported on both ends with additional intermediate support.
  • This type of beam has more than one span in a building. The use of continuous beams is usually preferred for bridge construction.

Types of Beam: Based on Geometry

1. Straight Beam

Straight Beam

  • A straight beam is the same as a straight profile with a length. Most high-rise buildings are built using straight beams.

2. Tapered Beam

Tapered Beam

  • The cross-section of this type of beam is tapered.

3. Curved Beam

Curved Beam

  • This type of beam is made on the balcony of a building with a curved profile.

Types of Beam: Based on Equilibrium Condition

1. Statically Determinate Beam

Statically Determinate Beam

  • The support reaction developed in this beam is calculated based on the basic equilibrium state. Statically determinate beams are analyzed using the basic equilibrium position to be used as a beam.
  • In this type of beam, the number of unknown forces in a statically defined beam is equal to the number of equations.

Also Read: Type of Building Materials

2. Statically Indeterminate Beam

Statically Indeterminate Beam

  • For static indeterminate beams, the number of strangers exceeds the number of equations. As a result, the equilibrium state is not sufficient to resolve the reactions. Therefore, analyzing this type of beam is more complex than statically defined beams.

Types of Beam: Based on Method of Construction

1. Cast In-situ Concrete Beam

Cast In-situ Concrete Beam

  • This type of beam is made by the proper fixing of the formwork on the project site. Therefore, proper formwork is fixed for the beam. Then, fresh concrete is poured into it. During this concreting, compaction is done in the beam by a suitable vibrator machine.

2. Prestressed Concrete Beam

Prestressed Concrete Beam

  • Before placing this type of concrete beam in position, stress or strain is applied to it.
  • Prestressed-concrete beams designed by engineers can extend a greater distance than reinforced concrete beams. This type of beam is thin and light in weight.

3. Precast Concrete Beam

Precast Concrete Beam

  • Precast beams are made in the manufacturing plant. It is manufactured in a highly controlled environment and in ideal conditions for maximum beam strength.
  • The precast concrete beam is made in a very controlled manner with high quality. These finished precast beams are transported to the construction site for use.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Types of Beams

The Different Types of Beams
  • Universal beam.
  • Hip beam.
  • Trussed beam.
  • Lattice beam.
  • Composite beam.
  • Chilled beam.
  • Reinforced concrete beam.
  • Steel beam.

What Is Doubly Reinforced Beam?

A reinforced concrete beam with steel reinforcement both in tension and compression zone is called a doubly reinforced beam. Why is compression reinforcement provided in concrete beams? The compression reinforcement is provided to increase the load-carrying capacity of beams.

What Is Concrete Beam?

Concrete beams, also known as summers, are girders that take up a load of a floor or wall and relay it to other structural components. The load capacity and/or span of a ceiling can be increased by the use of beams.

What Is Reinforced Concrete Beam?

Reinforced concrete beams are structural elements that are designed to carry transverse external loads. The loads cause bending moment, shear forces, and sometimes, torsion across their length.

What Is Timber Beam?

Timber post and beam construction is a building method that comprises vertical structural posts and horizontal beams, jointed to form a structural frame into which walls are ‘placed.’

What Is Steel Beam?

A steel beam is a structural element that basically opposes loads applied along the side of the beam’s axis. Its method of redirection is fundamentally by twisting. The loads applied to the beam bring about response forces at the beam’s support points.

How Heavy Is a Steel Beam?

In the United States, steel I-beams are commonly specified using the depth and weight of the beam. For example, a “W10x22” beam is approximately 10 in (254 mm) in depth (nominal height of the I-beam from the outer face of one flange to the outer face of the other flange) and weighs 22 lb/ft (33 kg/m).

How Heavy Is a Steel I Beam?

In the United States, steel I-beams are commonly specified using the depth and weight of the beam. For example, a “W10x22” beam is approximately 10 in (254 mm) in depth (nominal height of the I-beam from the outer face of one flange to the outer face of the other flange) and weighs 22 lb/ft (33 kg/m).

What Is an I Beam?

An I-beam, also known as an H-beam, w-beam, universal beam, rolled steel joist, or double-T, is a beam with an I or H-shaped cross-section. The horizontal elements of the I are flanges, and the vertical element is the “web.” I-beams are usually made of structural steel and are used in construction and civil engineering.

What Is an I Beam in Construction?

I beams are often referred to as universal beams, as they can handle a wide variety of loads when used horizontally as the support system for heavy-duty columns and are useful in a variety of structural steel frameworks.

How Is an I Beam Made?

They are made using two long planes known as the “flange,” with a middle section that holds the two together called the “web.” These beams are generally made out of steel, although they are also made out of other types of alloys, such as aluminum alloys and low-alloy steel.

How Heavy Is an I Beam?

At Texas Iron & Metal, we offer a wide variety of standard I-beams. Also, lighter junior beams, ranging from 4.4 lbs per foot all the way up to the standard I beam up to 121 lbs per foot. We also offer I-beams in a variety of web and flange thicknesses, from 0.114″ to 1.060″.

Prestressed Concrete Beam

Prestressed concrete is a form of concrete used in construction. It is substantially “prestressed” during production in a manner that strengthens it against tensile forces which will exist when in service.

In Situ Concrete Beams

In Situ Concrete Beams
Many structures (e.g., buildings and bridges) require the construction of beams in situ. Generally, these will be supported by walls or columns though sometimes they will be ground-supported. Construction of a beam will require formwork (see also ‘Formwork’) for its sides and soffit.

Statically Indeterminate Beam

Statically Indeterminate Beam
Statically indeterminate beams are those for which we are unable to solve reactions simply from the rigid body equilibrium analysis. This is the case since the number of unknowns exceeds the number of equilibrium equations available.

Statically Determinate Beam

Beams. In regards to beams, if the reaction forces can be calculated using equilibrium equations alone, they are statically determined. On the other hand, if the reaction force can’t be determined using equilibrium equations only, other methods have to be used, and the structure is said to be statically indeterminate.

Curved Beam

A beam whose axis is not straight and is curved in elevation is said to be a curved beam. If the applied loads are along the y direction and the span of the beam is along the x direction, the axis of the beam should have a curvature in the xy plane.

Tapered Beam

A tapered beam is one that is represented by one section size on one end and a different section size on the other end.

Straight Beam

Straight beam testing is generally employed to find cracks or delaminations parallel to the surface of a test piece, as well as voids and porosity. It may use contact, delay line, dual element, or immersion transducers, all of which launch longitudinal waves on a straight path into the test piece.

Continuous Beam

Continuous steel beams consist of two or more beams that are welded together and supported by other beams to create a stable yet flexible component for large-scale structures. For instance, continuous beams are used in bridges, multi-story buildings, complex roof structures, and other construction projects.

Cantilever Beam

A cantilever beam is a member with one end projecting beyond the point of support, free to move in a vertical plane under the influence of vertical loads placed between the free end and the support.

Overhanging Beam

If the end portion of a beam extends beyond the support, then the beam is known as an overhanging beam. Overhanging may be on one of the supports or on both sides.

Simply Supported Beam

A simply supported beam is one that rests on two supports and is free to move horizontally. Typical practical applications of simply supported beams with point loadings include bridges, beams in buildings, and beds of machine tools.

Fixed Beam

A fixed beam is supported between two fixed ends. It is also called a fixed-end beam or built-in beam, or restrained beam. It is classified as a statically indeterminate beam, which involves more than three unknowns, and the equilibrium equations of statics alone are not sufficient to determine the support reactions.

L Section Beam

Angle beams have two legs that come together at a right angle, forming an L shape. The lengths of the two legs can be equal or can differ in length, depending on how it will be used.

I Beam

I beams are usually the critical support trusses in structural steel construction. I beams are almost always used in the construction of large structures, such as warehouses and large buildings.

Steel I Beam

Steel Beams are widely used throughout the construction industry when supporting heavy loads is required. Commonly termed an “I” Beam because of its shape.

T Section Beam

A T-beam (or tee beam), used in construction, is a load-bearing structure of reinforced concrete, wood or metal with a T-shaped cross-section. The top of the T-shaped cross section serves as a flange or compression member in resisting compressive stresses.

Rectangular Beam

Description. The Flexible Rectangular Beam block models a slender beam with a rectangular cross-section that can be solid or hollow. The rectangular beam can have small and linear deformations. These deformations include extension, bending, and torsion.

Composite Beams

A composite beam is a combination of lightweight material, such as plastic, in a structure with more dense material, such as concrete, to give the structure a higher strength-to-weight ratio. To create a composite beam, the designer of the structure can combine a concrete floor with a plastic underside.

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