Types of Columns Used in Construction

Types of Columns Used in Construction

What Is Column?

Different types of columns are used as required in building construction. The effective depth of a building column is at least 3 times its side dimension.

The structural column is the vertical member of the structure in building construction. Through this, the dead load and live load of the structure are transferred from the beam and slab to the base.

Columns act as compression members to transfer axial loads. The column can be identified as an essential element of the constitution. Sometimes the failure of the support column results in a failure of the structure.

What Is the Importance of Column Construction in Building Structures?

In the structure of a building, the column carries an axial load as a compression member.

Other external forces, such as snow load, can cause the bending of the structure of the building by wind load. Columns are used in the frame structure of a building to prevent structural failure.

Small size structures can be made with brick masonry for the height of the residential buildings. But in a multi-story building.

The structure cannot be made by brickwork construction. This is because, in a high-rise building, a heavy load needs to be transferred to the base of the structure.

Different types of columns are commonly used in building construction to transfer axial loads and additional forces to the ground safely.

The frame structure made up of columns increases its resistance to earthquakes or any other external factors.

Types of Column Used in Construction

Different types of columns are used in construction,

A. Types of Column: Based on the Type of Loading

1. Axially Loaded Column

Axially Loaded Column

If the axial loads on the column are transferred to the base by the center of gravity of the cross-section of the column. This type of column is defined as an axially loaded column.

This type of column is rare in construction. Consolidating the vertical load of a building on the center of gravity of the column section is not practical.

In a high-rise building, the interior column in the structure transfers a symmetrical load from the floor slab. An internal column used in high-rise buildings is an example of this type of column.

2. Column with Biaxial Eccentric Loading

Column with Biaxial Eccentric Loading

The axial load on the column does not coincide uniformly with the center of gravity of the cross-section. The column can then be defined as a biaxially eccentric loaded column.

Columns with biaxial loading are usually the corner columns of a building structure. This type of column is firmly connected to the beam at the top corner.

3. Uniaxial Eccentrically Loaded Column

Uniaxial Eccentrically Loaded Column

In a column, the axial load does not coincide with the center of gravity of the column cross-section but transfers the eccentric load to the X or Y axis of the cross-section of the column. Then that column is called the uniaxially eccentric loading column.

This type of column is used for the loading system in the case of beams rigidly attached to one side of the column on edge.

B. Types of Columns: Based on the Shape

4. Square or Rectangular Column

Square or Rectangular Column

The most common type of square or rectangular column plays an important role in the construction of buildings and heavy structures.

It is much easier to construct a rectangular or square column than a circular column. This type of column has good resistance to pressure during concrete due to its ease of fixing and shuttering support. More effective and cheaper in the construction of square or rectangular columns.

5. L and T Shaped Column

L and T Shaped Column

In the structure of a building, an L-shaped column is usually used as a corner element of the boundary wall. In addition, it performs functions similar to rectangular or square columns.

T-shaped columns are used to design the structure based on the requirements of high-rise buildings. This type of column is used in the construction of bridges.

6. Circular Column

Circular Column

Circular columns are used in building construction mostly for aesthetic purposes in the elevation of buildings.

In the circular column, more than 4 reinforcement bars are used. This type of column can have higher bending resistance than a square or rectangular column. Circular columns are used in buildings and mostly as bridge columns.

C. Types of Column: Based on the Type of Reinforcement

7. Tied Column

Tied Column

This type of column is made of reinforced concrete. Strength is provided by placing stirrups at close distances in longitudinal reinforcements.

If the stirrup is removed in the longitudinal bar, there is a possibility of severe failure of the column. Typically this type of column is 95% of columns in the construction of buildings all over the world.

8. Composite Column

Composite Column

In this type of column, the closed structural steel or cast iron column is reinforced in concrete with longitudinal reinforcement and spiral reinforcement.

Composite columns are used in truss structures to prevent the corrosion of steel columns. This type of column gives more strength with a fairly small cross-section with good fire performance.

9. Spiral Column

Spiral Column

When a column with spiral reinforcement at equal distances above the longitudinal bar forms a column, it is called a spiral column.

The spiral column should usually use a minimum of 6 nos longitudinal bars. The diameter of reinforcement should not be less than 12 mm. In addition, the spacing between the longitudinal bars should not exceed 300 mm.

D. Types of Column: Based on Construction Materials

10. Brick Column

Brick Column

Brick Masonry-type Columns Are Used in Load-Bearing Structures. It Plays an Important Role in Stabilizing the Structure of the Building.

Sometimes, brick masonry columns are constructed by the architect on the concrete column to give an aesthetic look. The brick masonry column can be shaped into various round, rectangular, square, or elliptical shapes.

11. Timber Column

Timber Column

The timber used as column material is known as timber column. Wooden columns were widely used in ancient times.

Timber columns can be used in the structure of the building as a strong and durable building material. If the timber column is properly maintained and seasoned with wood from time to time, it gives strength to the structure and reduces weight.

12. Block Column

Block Column

The column is constructed from AAC block or cement concrete block. This column is called the block column. The weight of a block column is less than that of a concrete column.

13. Stone Column

Stone Column

A column made using stones is known as a stone column. Commonly used to give the home an aesthetic look. Especially stone columns are used in the structure of temples.

14. Reinforced Concrete Column

Reinforced Concrete Column

This type of column is formed with longitudinal reinforcement and tie reinforcement. This type of column is mainly used for the structure of high-rise buildings. This type of column can be designed as a compression load.

15. Steel Column

Steel Column

Columns made of strong materials like steel are known as steel columns. Steel column is part of the steel structure in the industry.

Which provides ample space for the manufacturing unit. Steel columns are comparatively more flexible, strong, and durable than concrete columns.

Different-shaped columns are used in industrial manufacturers’ units. Sections like the T section and the I section.

The Square section, the rectangular section, the Circular section, etc., are used as columns in the steel structure.

E. Types of Column: Based on Slenderness Ratio

16. Short Column

Short Column

According to the slender ratio to the short column, the ratio of the effective length of the column to the minimum dimension next to it is less than 12. The crushing of concrete causes small column failure.

17. Long Column

Long Column

According to the slender ratio to the short column, the ratio of the effective length of the column to the minimum dimension next to it is bigger than 12. The long column fails by bending or buckling.

F. Types of Column: Other Type of Columns

18. Greek Column or Greek Pillars

Greek Column or Greek Pillars

The Greek column was built in the style of architecture by the ancient Greeks. The Greek column consists of columns of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian types.

These three types of columns were an important part of the compositions in ancient Greek culture in Greece. Greek column style is especially found in the structure of Greek temples.

19. Roman Column or Roman Pillars

Roman Column or Roman Pillars

Roman columns have almost the same structure as the Greek column but are more elaborate. The Romans made a name for themselves in the architectural world with their innovative use of arches and vault ceilings.


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Frequently Asked Questions

Types of Columns

1. Short Column, 2. Long Column, 3. Circular Column, 4. Tied Column, 5. Composite Column, 6. Spiral Column, 7. Brick Column, 8. Timber Column, 9. Block Column,10. Stone Column, 11. Reinforced Concrete Column, 12. Steel Column, 13. Greek Column or Greek Pillars, 14. Roman Column or Roman Pillars, 15. Axially Loaded Column, 16. A column with Biaxial Eccentric Loading, 17. Uniaxial Eccentrically Loaded Column, 18. Uniaxial Eccentrically Loaded Column.

What Are the 3 Types of Roman Columns?

The Romans adopted the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian forms of the Tuscan-type column, which was usually a simpler form of Doric. This type of column is a combination of the ionic and Corinthian order.

What Are 3 Types of Greek Columns?

The Greek column was built in the style of architecture by the ancient Greeks. The Greek column consists of columns of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian types.

What Is a Column and Its Types?

Columns are mainly defined as the compressive member in the structure to transfer the axial load. The column is used to send the axial load of the structure to the foundation. Concrete columns can generally be divided into three categories – pedestals, short reinforced columns, and long reinforced columns.

What Is a Greek Column?

These three types of columns were an important part of the compositions in ancient Greek culture in Greece. Greek column style is especially found in the structure of Greek temples.

What Is Column Failure?

The columns are used to safely transfer the axial load to the horizontal beam. Every material in the structure of the building experiences both compression and tension stress. So if the applied stress increases on the designed column, then the structure starts to fail.

What Are Fake Columns Called?

In classical architecture, pilaster is used only as a decorative element for the appearance of supporting columns to specify the boundaries of the wall.

What Is a Column in Civil Engineering?

The function of the column in architecture and structural engineering is to transmit the axial load of the upper structure to other structural elements below through compression. In addition, the column is a part of the structure of the building.

Is Pilaster a Column?

Pilaster in Greco-Roman classical architecture projected slightly beyond the wall as a shallow rectangular column. Which precisely corresponds to the style of the adjacent columns.

What Is a Column in Architecture?

The column serves as an accessory in cases of spherical shafts with a base, usually as a verticle element in the architecture. Which column can also be used for non-structural purposes. Which can be used in the structure for decorative purposes or as a freestanding monument.

What Are the Advantage of Composite Columns?

This type of column can achieve high load-bearing capacity and high fire resistance. This type of column can be easily installed and designed in any shape.

What Is Column?

In a relational database, a column is a set of data values of a particular type, one value for each row of the database. A column may contain text values, numbers, or even pointers to files in the operating system.

What Is Column in Construction?

Columns are frequently used to support beams or arches on which the upper parts of walls or ceilings rest. In architecture, “column” refers to such a structural element that also has certain proportional and decorative features.

What Are Columns in Buildings?

Columns are used to support floor/roof beams and the columns of the floor above. The columns at the bottom floor of a tall building must carry the accumulative weight of all the floors above. This is why the location of columns ideally should be consistent throughout all floors.

What Is Axially Loaded Column?

Axial load is defined as the force acting along the axis or centerpiece of a structure, producing a uniform effort.

What Are the 3 Types of Columns?

There a five different orders or styles of columns. The first three orders, Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, are the three principal architectural orders of ancient architecture. They were developed in ancient Greece but also used extensively in Rome. The final two, Tuscan and Composite, were developed in ancient Rome.

Square Column Vs Rectangular Column

The common difference between the three shapes of columns
Let’s forget about the columns; just focus on the geometry parts alone to better understand this. The circular or cylindrical shape is symmetry. Whereas a square has 4 axes of symmetry and a rectangle has 2 axes of symmetry.

Circular Column

Circular columns are especially suitable for seismic-prone areas where high strength and ductility are needed in all directions. It is much easier to confine the concrete using special reinforcement in circular columns (or squares) than in other shapes.

Steel Circular Column

Circular hollow sections, also known as round steel tubes, are a common type of steel section that is used in a variety of formats over various industries in South Africa. These steel sections are rolled from steel sheets or slit coils.

Circular Timber Columns

Timber column design refers to the design of columns constructed from two basic categories of timber products: Sawn Lumber (i.e., lumber cut whole from a tree) and Glued Laminated members.

Tied Column

A tied column is one in which smaller diameter transverse bars, commonly known as ties, attach the reinforcing bars at regular intervals. The major purpose of the ties is to maintain the longitudinal bars vertical while they are built. It also contributes to the column’s buckling resistance.

Composite Column

Composite columns are a combination of two traditional structural forms: structural steel and structural concrete. As composite columns were generally developed after steel columns and reinforced concrete columns, their design approach could have been based on either steel or concrete design methods.

Composite Porch Columns

Fiberglass composite porch columns are one of our most popular products. They are made of a combination of marble dust, fiberglass, and resin. We offer round and square porch columns in several architectural styles. For example, our round fiberglass columns are available straight or tapered, smooth or fluted.

Concrete Encased Steel Column

Concrete Encased Steel (CES) composite columns are those columns in which structural steel is encased inside reinforced concrete. By combining both materials, columns can handle a large amount of load with a lesser cross-sectional area.

Composite Columns for Porch

Fiberglass composite porch columns are one of our most popular products. They are made of a combination of marble dust, fiberglass, and resin. We offer round and square porch columns in several architectural styles. For example, our round fiberglass columns are available straight or tapered, smooth or fluted.

What Is the Difference Between a Pilaster and a Column?

A column is a freestanding round shaft. A square column is called a pier. When a round column is attached to a wall, it is called an engaged column; and when a pier is attached to a wall, it is called a pilaster. (When a piece of the wall breaks forward without any differing details, it is called an anta.)

Roman Pillars

They were quarried in Egypt and shipped to Rome. However, most columns were constructed from segments or drums. Any fluting would be carved into the column once it was erected. Column capitals were carved before being placed.

Greek Column

Columns were carved of local stone, usually limestone or tufa; in much earlier temples, columns would have been made of wood. Marble was used in many temples, such as the Parthenon in Athens, which is decorated with Pentelic marble and marble from the Cycladic island of Paros.

Greek Column Types

There a five different orders or styles of columns. The first three orders, Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, are the three principal architectural orders of ancient architecture. They were developed in ancient Greece but also used extensively in Rome. The final two, Tuscan and Composite, were developed in ancient Rome.

Short Column

As per the IS 456 definition, a column is short when the ratio of the effective length of the column to its dimensions is less than 12. So a column can be short in one direction and long in another direction.

Long Column and Short Column

If the ratio of effective length to its least lateral dimension is less than or equal to 12 then it is called short column. If the ratio of the effective length of the column to its least lateral dimension is greater than 12 then it is called a long column.

Long Column

A long or slender column is one whose ratio of effective length to its least lateral dimension is not less than 12. Then it is termed a long column.

Steel Column

Spiral reinforced concrete columns are concrete reinforcement columns with an embedded steel mesh, which is called rebar that provides reinforcement to the column’s structure. These are cylindrical columns with a continuous helical bar wrapped around each column.

Types of Columns in Architecture

There are five orders of columns in classical architecture: Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite. They range from simple to complex in this order.

Different Types of Columns

Column Types | Doric, Corinthian, Ionic, Tuscan, Composite Columns.

Types of Column in Construction

  1. Circular columns. Circular columns are columns classified based on their shape.
  2. Composite columns.
  3. L-shape columns.
  4. Short reinforced columns.
  5. Spiral reinforced concrete columns.
  6. Square or rectangular columns.
  7. Stub columns.
  8. Tension columns.

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