What Is Pipe Fittings | 12 Types of Pipe Fittings

types of pipe fittings

Friends, we have learned about different types of pipes; now we have learned what pipe fitting is. So friends, let us learn a new chapter called Pipe Fitting, in which we will see how many types of pipe fittings there are and what they are used for.

So let’s start a new chapter with pipe fitting,

What Is Pipe Fitting?

The act of installing or repairing pipes or tubes is called pipe fitting.

Pipe fittings are the system that is used to connect or attach one pipe to another. To attach one pipe to another for extending or lengthening the run or flow of the pipe or to change the direction of flow, pipe fittings are used. So pipe fittings are also known as pipe connectors.

To reduce, combine or divert the flow of the water supply, pipe fittings are used. There are different types of pipe fittings. The sizes of pipe connectors are according to the size of the pipe and the size of the desired change in the flow direction or reduction of the flow. Pipe fittings are a crucial component for the functioning of pipes.

Many sizing standards need to be followed, and the dimensions of pipe fittings are so much more important. Some pipe fittings are designed so that the size of the openings on both sides is different. Where some pipe fittings have the same size in both openings, but they change the direction of flow.

Pipe fittings that have the same size on both sides are used as a transition from one pipe to another pipe of the same size. And pipe fittings that have different sizes on both ends are used as a transition from one pipe to another pipe of a different size.

There are different types of pipe fittings available in the market. Each type of pipe fitting has its different usage. In plumbing systems, they are used for different purposes, and they are connected differently; also, they are made of different materials. In this article, you will learn how different types of pipe fittings are used and what are their advantages and disadvantages.

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Types of Pipe Fitting

The list of different types of pipe fittings is as follows.

  •  Elbow
  •  Tee
  •  Reducer
  •  Plug and Cap
  •  Coupling
  •  Union
  •  Cross
  •  Swage Nipple
  •  Olets
  •  Stub Ends
  •  Adapter
  •  Valve

Guys, we learned about the pipe fitting’s names and images; now let’s learn a little more about them.

1. Elbow

To change the direction of the flow between the two pipes, Elbow fittings are used. Usually, elbows have an angle from 90-, 60-, 45-, and 22 ½ – degrees, and to make a turn In the flow, these are used. To move around obstructions in the pipe run, they can be joined.

There are usually two types of elbows,

  • 90 ° Elbow
  • 45 ° Elbow.

1.1. 90 ° Elbow

This is one of the most common fittings used to change direction. A 90° elbow can also be called “90 bands” or “90 EL”. It can be used to divert the flow in any direction. It can also be known as a quarter band. The 90 elbows are used in places where a major curve is needed.

This may be a requirement, affecting the flow rate and pressure inside the pipe. Like any piping system, the material under pressure hits the elbow and tends to move in the same direction. When it completes the resistance of the elbow wall, it needs to change direction at the expense of pressure. There are two types of 90 ° elbows.

  • Long Radius Elbow
  • Short Radius Elbow
1.1.1. Long Radius Elbow

90 l redius e

It is the most common elbow. Its radius of curvature is 1.5 times the diameter of the pipe; If the radius of curvature is greater than 1.5 times, then the long radius elbow can also be called curvature.

This elbow is usually used when it is in a position with high pressure or high flow rate It is usually made of stainless steel, carbon steel, and alloy steel and is used in the sewer system, chemical, thermal, pharmaceutical, aerospace, power, paper, and other industries.

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1.1.2. Short Radius Elbow

90 s redius e (1)

This elbow means that the radius of curvature of the elbow is equal to 1 times the diameter of the pipe or equal to the diameter of the pipe. It is usually used for low-pressure fluids or when there are some limitations regarding elbow installation. If there are no conditional limits or anything specifically marked in the contract, along radius elbow will be preferred.

1.2. 45 ° Elbow

45 redius e

A 45 ° elbow is also known as a “45 band” or “45 EL”. It is commonly used in pipeline networks in water supply facilities, food industries, chemical industries, electronics industries, air conditioning facilities, agricultural and horticultural production transport systems, solar energy facilities, etc.

2. Tee


Tee fittings are pipe fittings in the shape of the English alphabet ‘T.’ Tee fittings are used to connect three pipes in one place. Tee fittings have one inlet and two outlets. The two outlets form a right angle on both sides, giving the component the shape of the letter ‘T.’ Tees are used to divide one main supply line into two different supply lines. Tee fittings also can combine two flows into one outlet.

Tee fits are available in perpendicular or inclined directions. There are two types of tee

Also Read: What Is Culvert | Types of Culvert | Advantages & Disadvantages of Culverts

2.1. Equal Tee

If the diameter of the tee branch is equal to the diameter of the main pipe (Run pipe), then this tee is called Equal tee (or straight tee).

2.2 Reducing Tee

If the diameter of the branch is smaller than the main diameter, this tee is called the Reducing tee.

3. Reducer

If two pipes are of different diameters, the elbow connecting them is called a reducer. A reducer is mostly used to slow down the flow of fluid. The flow can also be controlled by connecting two pipes of different diameters. There are two types of reducer

  • Concentric Reducer
  • Eccentric Reducer

3.1. Concentric Reducer

c reducer

This reducer is shaped like a cone, this type of reducer increases the pressure across the pipe due to the accumulation of air.

3.2. Eccentric Reducer

ec reducer

It is a reducer with one side parallel as only one side is curved. This type of fitting does not pose a risk of air accumulation.

4. Plug and Cap

p & c

Plugs and caps are used to close the pipe to prevent flow during repair work. They both work similarly, but the only difference between them is that the cap is provided with female threads while the plug is provided with male threads.

5. Coupling


Couplings connect the two pipes in a straight line. Two pipes connected by couplings must be of equal diameter. They are soldered, welded, or attached to the ends of pipes.

Couplings are used in long plumbing lines. For example, it is used to lay a long plumbing line and to connect another pipe when the length of one pipe is not sufficient.

Couplings are mainly used even when there is leakage in the pipeline. There are three types of coupling,

5.1. Full Coupling

Full couplings are used to connect small bore pipes. It is used to connect a pipe, a swage, or a nipple to a pipe.

5.2. Half Coupling

Half coupling is used for small bore branches from a vessel or large bore pipe. It is threaded or socket welded at one end only, while the other end can be welded directly into the pipe operation to make a branch connection.

5.3. Reducing Coupling

Reducing coupling is the connection of two pipes of different diameters. It connects a large diameter pipe with a small diameter pipe. Its function is to reduce the size of the pipe.

6. Union

union (1)

Union fittings are similar to coupling fittings because union fittings also connect two pipes of the same size. In the union fitting, in the middle of the fitting, a nut or ring is joined. This pipe keeps two pipes joined. To disconnect the two pipes which were joined in a union fitting is easier than disconnecting two pipes that were joined in a coupling fitting.

In disconnecting a coupling, a pipe joint must be cut but to disconnect a union fitting; it can simply be done by loosening the ring of the union fitting.

Parts of Unions

  • Nut
  • Female End
  • Male End

Some unions have one end male threaded end and one female threaded. To make the pipe fitting work properly, both male and female ends are fastened together using nuts. Female-threaded fittings have threads on the inside of the union, while male-threaded fittings have threads on the outside of the union.

The pairing ends of the union can be replaced, so these pipe fittings can be easily replaced in a short time.

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7. Cross

cross (1)

Cross fittings are pipe fittings that are shaped like a cross. In cross-fitting, there are four openings for pipes. Four pieces are joined in four directions. Four-way cross fittings are not very common, but these are largely used in sprinkler applications and irrigation.

There are two types of cross,

7.1. Equal Cross

In the Equal cross, all 4 ends of the cross are in the same diameter.

7.2. Unequal or Reducing Cross

Unequal or Reducing cross is a type of fitting in which the four branch ends can be of different diameters.

8. Swage Nipple

swage nipple (1)

Swage nipples are a type of pipe fitting used to move from one size tubing to another. The function of the swage nipples is similar to that of a reducer, the only difference being that the swage nipple is commonly used to connect a butt welded pipe to a socket welded or screwed pipe. There are two types of swage nipple,

8.1. Concentric Swage Nipple:

Concentric swage nipple is used especially for vertical pipelines.

8.2. Eccentric Swage Nipple:

Eccentric swage nipples are used especially in horizontal pipelines.

9. Olet

olet1 (2)

Olet fittings are also called branch connection fittings or outlet fittings. These are fittings that provide an outlet for a pipe smaller or larger in size than the larger pipe.

The pipe that gives the branch association or connection pipe is traditionally called a branch or outlet estimation. Branch connections are available in all sizes, types, bores, and various steel categories.

Types of Olets

There are fourteen types of olets:

9.1. Weldolet (Wel)

Weldolet is the most common branch butt weld connection fitting that reduces the stress concentration by sticking to the outlet pipe. Which gives strength to the pipe fittings.

9.2. Threadolet (Tol)

Threadolet is a basic design similar to “weldolet.” However, this fitting differs from having a female threaded connection to connect the branch connection. It is used when screwing a connecting pipe or fitting into a branch connection.

9.3. Sockolet (Soc)

Sockolet (socket weld outlet) has the same basic design as the “weldolet” or “threadolet” but the socket has a socket for welding. It is mainly used for fitting reinforcing pipe connected by a branch pipe.

9.4. Elbolet (Elo)

Elbolet is a popular branch connection: it is made by welding the branch to the outlet of the run pipe. The edges of the elbolet are beveled to simplify the welding process, and for this reason, the elbolet belongs to the family of butt weld fittings. It is used to attach reinforced fittings.

9.5. Insert Weldolet

Insert Weldolet is another good butt-weld branch connection. It is used in less complex applications.

9.6. Branzolet

Branzolet is also a butt-weld branch connection. It is used in chemical fertilizer pipes.

9.7 Coupolet

Coupolet fittings are designed for use in fire protection sprinkler systems and other low-pressure piping applications. It is made by welding the item to the outlet of the branch run pipe. The edges of the couplet are beveled to simplify the welding process which is why the couplet butt belongs to the family of weld fittings.

9.8. Nipolet

Nipolet can be used for valve take-off, gutter, vent, or tap. It has a number of branch connections fitting families.

9.9 Flexolet Butt Weld

The number of fitting sizes can be reduced by Flexolet. This is called flexolet butt weld as the flexolet is joined by a butt weld.

9.10 Flexolet Socket Weld

This flexolet is called flexolet socket weld because it is connected to the socket

9.11. Flexolet Threaded

This flexolet is attached by threads which is why it is called flexolet threaded.

9.12. Latrolet (Lol)

Latrolet is similar to weldolet which forms a 45-degree bending branch on a straight run of pipe. Butt-weld latrolet can meet certain reinforcement requirements.

9.13. Sweepolet

Sweepolate is used to provide a smooth flow transition from run pipe to branch pipe. It is commonly used in large branch connections.

These butt-weld branch connections are also contoured and reinforced in an integral way to reduce stress intensity factors. This provides a less stressful solution with a longer fatigue life.

9.14. Nipoflange

Nipoflange is a welding neck flange, and it is a combination of weldolet nipple and flange. The nipoflange on the side of the run pipe is designed to be welded. So on one side of the run pipe is a branch connection welding connection and on the other side, it has a flange connection.

10. Stub Ends

stub end (1)

The stub end, which is usually the shortest length of pipe, has one end protruding while the other end is welded to the same trivial pipe or to the same wall thickness. There are two types of stub ends,

  • Long Stub End
  • Short Stub End

11. Adapter

adapter (1)

Adapters are used to flatten the ends of pipes when they are not suitable for laying any pipe fittings or if they are not flat. The adapter can be male threaded or female threaded depending on the need. Because the other end of the adapter is plain, it can be welded or glued to the pipe ends.

12. Valve

valve (1)

A valve is a type of pipe fitting that is very popular nowadays. It is used during repairs to prevent flow and to control liquids or gases inside the pipe.

Valves are of different types and made of different materials, with specific valves being used as required. Valves are identified differently, such as taps, bibs, stops, etc. Each type of valve has different advantages.

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Uses of Pipe Fitting

  1. Its run can be increased by connecting two pipes through it.
  2. The direction of flow can be changed by connecting the pipes through it.
  3. It is used to increase or decrease the flow as needed.
  4. It is also used to repair plumbing or to stop the flow for any reason.
  5. It is also used to transfer hazardous substances like chemicals, gas, and petrol.
  6. It is also needed for waste disposal.
  7. It is very useful in fire safety equipment.
  8. It is used in various industries like the plastics industry, chemical industry, and refinery.

Advantages of Pipe Fitting

Here, the pros of pipe fitting are as follows.

  1. Increase fluid run
  2. The direction of flow can be changed.
  3. This allows the flow to be increased, decreased, or stopped.
  4. To transfer hazardous substances such as gas, petrol, and gas
  5. For waste disposal
  6. Fire safety equipment.
  7. It is also useful to check for leakage in the plumbing line.

Disadvantages of Pipe Fitting

Here, the cons of pipe fitting are as follows.

  1. Leaks are more likely to occur from there.
  2. Garbage is more likely to be trapped there.
  3. This increases the likelihood of moisture in the wall.

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Pipe Fittings Chart

Untitled design (1) Untitled design (2)
Size C Approx.
Size A Approx.
Size A Approx.
1/4 0.81 0.19 1/4 0.94 0.19 1/4 0.94 0.19
6 20.60 0.09 6 23.90 0.09 6 23.90 0.09
3/8 0.88 0.28 3 1.06 0.29 3/8 1.06 0.29
10 22.40 0.13 10 26.90 0.13 10 26.90 0.13
1/2 1.00 0.44 1/2 1.25 0.50 1/2 1.25 0.50
15 25.40 0.70 15 31.80 0.23 15 31.80 0.23
3/4 1.13 0.32 3/4 1.44 0.77 3/4 1.44 0.77
20 28.70 1.10 20 36.60 0.35 20 36.60 0.35
1 1.31 0.50 1 1.63 1.20 1 1.63 1.20
25 33.30 1.70 25 41.40 0.53 25 41.40 0.53
1 1/4 1.50 0.75 1 1/4 1.94 1.80 1 1/4 1.94 1.80
32 38.10 2.20 32 49.30 0.82 32 49.30 0.82
1 1/2 1.69 1.01 1 1/2 2.13 2.40 1 1/2 2.13 2.40
40 42.90 3.40 40 54.10 1.10 40 54.10 1.10
2 2.00 1.60 2 2.50 3.80 2 2.50 3.80
50 50.80 5.60 50 63.50 1.75 50 63.50 1.75
2 1/2 2.25 2.50 2 1/2 2.94 6.30 2 1/2 2.94 6.30
65 57.20 2.50 65 74.70 2.90 65 74.70 2.90
3 2.50 83.00 3 3.38 9.50 3 3.38 9.50
80 63.50 3.80 80 85,9 4.30 80 85,9 4.30

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Frequently Asked Questions

Pipe Fittings

Pipe fittings are components used in plumbing and piping systems to connect, control, and change the direction or flow of fluids (liquids or gases). They are available in various shapes, sizes, and materials to suit different types of pipes and applications.

Plumbing Elbow

A plumbing elbow is a type of pipe fitting that is used to change the direction of a pipe in a plumbing system. It is designed with a curved section, typically at a 90-degree angle, to create a smooth turn in the pipeline. Elbows are available in different sizes and materials to accommodate various pipe dimensions and plumbing needs.

What Is a Street Elbow?

A street elbow is a type of plumbing or piping fitting intended to join a piece of pipe and another fitting at an angle. The difference between a street elbow and a regular elbow is the gender of its two connections. A regular elbow has a hub or female-threaded connection on each end, so it can join two male pipes.

What Is a Street Elbow Used For?

A street elbow (sometimes called a street ell or service ell) is a type of plumbing or piping fitting intended to join a piece of pipe and another fitting at an angle.

What Is a Pvc Street Elbow Used For?

They can be used in many plumbing applications, including water supply, drainage, sewers, vents, central vacuum systems, compressed air and gas lines, heating and air conditioning, sump pump drains, and other locations where plumbing fittings would be used to join sections of pipe.

How to Connect Pvc Pipe?

There are two ways for connecting PVC pipe and fittings together for a structural project. They are the PVC solvent (cement) method, and the fastener connect technique. Both versions work well, but we ALWAYS recommend using PVC cement, as it is the most secure and permanent answer.

What Is Pipe Fitting?

Installation or repair of pipes or tubes is called pipe fitting. Pipes and tubes are required for a variety of reasons. This necessitates pipe fitting in various industries such as waste management, agriculture, and manufacturing.

Why Is Pipe Fitting Necessary?

Pipe fittings are defined as piping components. They are used for many purposes, such as connecting straight parts of a pipe or tube, adjusting directional changes, sizes or shapes, for branch connections, and controlling (or measuring) fluid flow. It is also used in different industries like waste management, manufacturing, and agriculture.

What Is an Eccentric Reducer?

The eccentric reducer is parallel on one side and curved on the other. An eccentric reducer-type pipe fitting is produced with a slight outlet in the middle up to the large end. This allows it to connect to one side of the inlet. The reducer should be connected to the conventional side so that it can prevent air from deceiving at pump pressure. These eccentric pipe reducers make easy connections between pipes of different sizes.

What Is the Shape of a Concentric Reducer?

The concentric reducer is cone-shaped and is used when the diameter between the pipes changes.

Types of Pipe Fittings

  • Elbow
  • Tee
  • Coupling
  • Union
  • Reducer

What Makes a Pipe Valve Work?

The pipe valve controls the flow of liquid or gas inside the pipe. It is also useful for stopping the flow of water.

How Many Types of Stub Ends Are There?

There are two types of stub end.

  1. Long Stub End
  2. Short Stub End

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